27.   See, for example, the following previous CSTB reports: NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution; 2000, Making IT Better; 1995, Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative to Support the Nation’s Information Infrastructure.

28.   NRC/CSTB, 2000, Making IT Better.

29.   NRC/CSTB, 2010, Critical Code: Software Producibility for Defense, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., p. 37.

30.   NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution; 1995, Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative to Support the Nation’s Information Infrastructure.

31.   NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution; 1995, Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative to Support the Nation’s Information Infrastructure.

32.   NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution.

33.   NRC/CSTB, 2000, Making IT Better.

34.   The concentration of research in universities is particularly true for computer science research; industry played an important role in telecommunications research before the breakup of AT&T and the original Bell Labs. Important research has also been conducted at Department of Energy and other government laboratories.

35.   NRC/CSTB, 2000, Making IT Better.

36.   See, for example the following previous CSTB reports: NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution; 2000, Making IT Better; 1995, Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative to Support the Nation’s Information Infrastructure.

37.   NRC/CSTB, 2000, Making IT Better; 1994, Academic Careers in Experimental Computer Science and Engineering.

38.   NRC/CSTB, 2000, Making IT Better; 1992, Computing the Future.

39.   NRC/CSTB, 2000, Making IT Better.

40.   NRC/CSTB, 2001, Building a Workforce for the Information Economy.

41.   NRC/CSTB, 2001, Building a Workforce for the Information Economy.

42.   To the extent that U.S. research produces people who move to U.S. product development, the U.S. economy gains an “appropriable” benefit from funding research.

43.   Computing Research Association (CRA), 2010, Taulbee Survey Report, CRA, Washington, D.C., Table 25, http://www.cra.org/resources/taulbee/.

44.   NRC/CSTB, 2001, Building a Workforce for the Information Economy.

45.   In computing, electronics, telecommunications, and biotechnology, evidence of the correlation abounds—in Boston (Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology); Research Triangle Park (Duke University, the University of North Carolina, and North Carolina State University); New Jersey (Princeton University, Rutgers University, and New York City–based Columbia University); Austin (the University of Texas); southern California (the University of California, San Diego, the University of California, Los Angeles, the California Institute of Technology, and the University of Southern California); northern California (the University of California, Berkeley, the University of California, San Francisco, and Stanford University); and Seattle (the University of Washington).

46.   See, for example, previous CSTB reports, including NRC/CSTB, 1999, Funding a Revolution; 2000, Making IT Better; 1995, Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative to Support the Nation’s Information Infrastructure; 1992, Computing the Future; 2001, Building a Workforce for the Information Economy; 1994, Academic Careers in Experimental Computer Science and Engineering; 2001, Embedded, Everywhere; and 1997, More Than Screen Deep.

TABLE 1

Qualcomm—-Equipment and services ($6.98 billion); licensing and royalties ($4.01 billion). Qualcomm 2010 Annual Report, http://files.shareholder.com/downloads/QCOM/1510480689x0x451979/c5ba4b26-fe1d-4756-a735-ed1d972402cb/2010-10-K.pdf.

Motorola—Net sales, products ($6.1 billion); net sales, services ($2.1 billion). Motorola 2011 Annual Report, http://files.shareholder.com/downloads/ABEA-2FO3VV/1751114768x0x552627/1344EB61-45BA-4EAD-9EC4-A99116BE997C/MSI_2011_AR.pdf.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement