Table B.1 gives some examples of the many transfers of ideas and people and other impacts that occurred as the fields of computing and communications progressed, and it provides annotation for events depicted by arrows in Figure 1. It is not meant to be a comprehensive description of the history of the research in any of the areas listed.
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Appendix B Transfers of Ideas and People and Other Impacts Since 2003 Added to Figure 1 Table B.1 gives some examples of the many transfers of ideas and people and other impacts that occurred as the fields of computing and communications progressed, and it provides annotation for events depicted by arrows in Figure 1. It is not meant to be a comprehensive description of the history of the research in any of the areas listed. 27
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28 CONTINUING INNOVATION IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TABLE B.1 Transfers and Other Impacts Since 2003 as Indicated by the New Arrows Added to Figure 1 Research Track and Events Origins Impact Digital Communications Multiple-input and multiple- Closely related university research A fundamental enabler in today’s output pre-1996; industry R&D (Bell Labs wireless communications, including BLAST) in 1998 WiFi, WiMax, 4G, LTE, and others Radio-frequency complementary Basic research and some serious The foundational device technology for metal-oxide semiconductor engineering efforts in universities WiFi, GPS, Bluetooth, and others integrated circuits throughout the 1990s Wireless locating Industry R&D in the early 2000s, Fundamental to some wireless systems, with subsequent university research and an energy-saving supplement to GPS for mobile devices; now a foundation for growing location-based services Bluetooth Ericsson and open SIG 1994, with Now the industry standard for very- participation by industry and short-range secure networking; used university; based on earlier research primarily for local connectivity of in spread-spectrum radio devices MACA channel access protocol University and industry research The foundation for collision avoidance starting in 1990 and continuing to on shared physical network links, 2000s particularly for wireless networks Computer Architecture Adaptive branch predictors Two-level adaptive branch predictors Significant influence on subsequent started in academic research around research, as well as influence on 1992 modern processor designs Memory-dependence predictors Both university and industrial Fundamental to enabling aggressive research, emerging in practical form out-of-order execution in practice, around 1996-1997 affecting research in compilers and architectures, and commercial products Multicore Early university-based Fundamental to all processor developments, such as Stanford architectures on the market today; Hydra and MIT RAW, circa 2002; furthermore, the problems of parallel later, industry R&D such as Sun’s computing have become central in Niagara, around 2005 research Stream-based image-processing University-based research on stream- The foundation for today’s GPUs; architectures processing for image and signal today there is considerable research processing, leading to developments and commercial development on such as Imagine, circa 2002 applications that go far beyond graphics processing Graphical processing unit in Industry 2007 Present in mobile computers for some iPhone time, now considered de rigueur, given the user-experience advantages demonstrated by the iPad/iPhone Advances in parallel computing Continued university work on Collaboration by top computer applied to commercial product parallel computing in 2000s and architecture researchers in academia development earlier and movement between the university and industry communities
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29 APPENDIX B TABLE B.1 Continued Research Track and Events Origins Impact Software Technologies Modern virtual machines A long history of university A fundamental building block of cloud research, with recent practical technology, allowing more effective developments such as DISCO in provisioning of data-center services and 1997, and companies like VMware security in 1998 Modern buffer overrun Universities and industry Operating systems starting to protections throughout the 2000s incorporate dynamic methods for improving security Web 2.0 Industry, 2004 A fundamental shift in thinking in the operating system research community, as a new layer of distributed application infrastructure emerges Multitouch appears in iPhone Industry, 2007 New research thrusts in gesture-based user interfaces and some re-thinking of system architectures Kinect Industry, 2010 Originally designed as a game controller, then adopted by researchers as a new core sensor for many applications Networking Content distribution networks Early foundations developed in A fundamental part of how the Internet universities, contributing algorithms, works, essential to provision of services systems concepts, and people to such as YouTube, news sites, and many companies such as Akamai, 1998 others Multiprotocol label switching Early developments in companies Had a fundamental influence on such as Ipsilon Networks, circa 1996 subsequent university research in networking GigaScope and others Industry and university research, in Stream-based measurement and traffic particular AT&T Labs around 2003 analysis on large networks (and the Internet)—a fundamental tool for today’s research OpenFlow Stanford University, 2008 Issued as a standard in 2011 Parallel and Distributed Systems Map-Reduce Fundamental ideas date back to the Changed the research thinking in 1960s, but made practical at scale by distributed computing; a foundation for Google in 2004 many cloud systems Hadoop Open-source development, around Had immediate influence on university 2006 research, including not only distributed systems but also areas such as machine learning and databases; increasingly the base for commercial offerings Message passing interface A university and industry standards The standard mechanism for development, around 1994 programming high-performance computers continued
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30 CONTINUING INNOVATION IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TABLE B.1 Continued Research Track and Events Origins Impact Parallel and Distributed Systems (continued) Parallel virtual machine Originated at Oakridge National A key foundation for programming a Laboratory and university around networked collection of computers as 1990-1991 a single system, for both research and practical applications Peer-to-peer Open community, picking up steam Significant influence on a wide variety around 2004 of widely used systems, such as Skype Databases Researchers leave Stanford to University to start-up, 1998 Google found Google Data integration technologies University and industry R&D Fundamental impact on the “big data” throughout the 2000s movement, as seen in technologies such as Google Fusion Tables (2009) Data-stream management systems Industry R&D in the early 2000s A key driver and enabler for both research and commercial developments in “big data” XML Broad community process in 1997; A key foundation for representation of earlier SGML late 1980s online content on the Web and other IT-based systems Computer Graphics Poisson image editing Industry R&D, 2003 A major advance in image editing, now a core of image-processing tools (like Photoshop) and associated algorithms Image stitching Industry and university research, Omnipresent, from its use in mapping circa 2005 services (e.g., Google Maps) to modern filmmaking and panorama features in cameras Spherical harmonic shading Universities, around 2002 A major advance in (relatively) low-overhead realistic shading and shadowing in computer graphics LightStage real-time capture Universities (especially University of A foundation for today’s digital image Southern California), in 2002 capture, used widely with particular impact in moviemaking and recognized recently with an Academy Award Stable fluids and related methods Universities, around 1999 The core of all image and video rendering for realistic smoke, water, and so on Disney/Pixar labs Industry-university partnership, in Similar to the Intel “lablet” model, for 2007 closer collaboration between industry and university research
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31 APPENDIX B TABLE B.1 Continued Research Track and Events Origins Impact AI and Robotics Incremental heuristic search Universities, around 2004 A building block for a wide array of data mining and search technologies, as well as a foundation for basic research Hidden Markov models for University and industry R&D A major step in the general reduction biology, speech, and the like throughout the 1990s of problems outside of core computing (genomics, speech processing, and so on) to algorithmic problems Recommender systems University and industry R&D, circa A core element of today’s e-commerce 1994 systems Bayesian methods applied University and industry R&D Fundamental to the major shift toward throughout the 1990s more statistical approaches to machine intelligence Kinect audio and vision Microsoft, 2010 The most rapidly adopted consumer electronics device of all time