Report of a Workshop by the
National Academy of Engineering and United States Institute of Peace
Roundtable on Technology, Science, and Peacebuilding


Andrew Robertson and Steve Olson, Rapporteurs

                                     OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES


Washington, D.C.

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
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Andrew Robertson and Steve Olson, Rapporteurs UNITED STATES INSTITUTE OF PEACE

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: This publication has been reviewed according to procedures approved by the National Academy of Engineering report review process. Publication of signed work signifies that it is judged a competent and useful contribution worthy of public consideration, but it does not imply endorsement of conclusions or recommendations by the National Acad- emy of Engineering. The interpretations and conclusions in such publications are those of the authors and do not purport to present the views of the council, officers, or staff of the National Academy of Engineering. The Roundtable on Technology, Science, and Peacebuilding, the sponsor of the workshop on which this report is based, is supported by funding from the U.S. Department of Defense (JDDM-3663-1), Qualcomm, National Science Foundation (ENG-1136841), U.S. Depart- mnt of Agriculture (59-0790-2-058), U.S. Department of State, and CRDF Global. Any opinions, findings, or conclusions expressed in this publication are those of the workshop participants. International Standard Book Number 13: 978-0-309-25967-5 International Standard Book Number 10: 0-309-25967-3 Copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (888) 624-8373; online at For more information about the National Academy of Engineering, visit the NAE home page at Copyright 2012 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of dis- tinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the further- ance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibil- ity given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scien- tific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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The United States Institute of Peace is the global conflict management center for the United States. Created by Congress in 1984 to be independent and nonpartisan, the Institute works to prevent, mitigate, and resolve international conflict through nonviolent means. USIP operates in the world's most challenging conflict zones, and it leads in professional conflict management and peacebuilding by applying innovative tools, convening experts and stake- holders, supporting policymakers, and providing public education. The Institute translates its on-the-ground experience into knowledge, skills, and resources for policymakers, the US military, government and civilian leaders, nongovernmental organizations, practitioners, and citizens both here and abroad. The Institute's permanent headquarters and conference center are located at the northwest corner of the National Mall in Washington, DC. The facility also houses the Academy for International Conflict Management and Peacebuilding and the Global Peacebuilding Center.

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WORKSHOP STEERING COMMITTEE Pamela Aall (co-chair), Senior Vice President, U.S. Institute of Peace Ann Bartuska (co-chair), Deputy Under Secretary, U.S. Department of Agriculture Cathy Campbell, President and CEO, CRDF Global Mark Epstein, Senior Vice President of Development, Qualcomm Brian Greenberg, Director of Sustainable Development, InterAction Mike McGirr, National Program Leader, NIFA-USDA, U.S. Department of Agriculture Donald Nkrumah, Associate Director, Global R&D, Pfizer Animal Health Riikka Rajalahti, Senior Agricultural Specialist, The World Bank Staff Geneve Bergeron, Research Assistant, U.S. Institute of Peace Sheldon Himelfarb, Director, Center of Innovation for Science, Technology, and Peacebuilding Greg Pearson, Senior Program Officer, National Academy of Engineering Proctor P. Reid, Director, NAE Program Office Andrew Robertson, Senior Program Officer, U.S. Institute of Peace Ibrahim Shaqir, Interagency Professional in Residence, U.S. Institute of Peace Frederick S. Tipson, Special Advisor, Center of Innovation for Science, Technology, and Peacebuilding v

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Acknowledgments T his summary has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by The National Academies. The purpose of the independent review is to provide candid and critical comments to assist the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Gary Alex, Farmer-to-Farmer Program Manager, U.S. Agency for International Development Mark Bell, Director, International Learning Center, UC Davis Dennis Kopp, Retired Program and Analysis Officer, NIFA-USDA Cindi Warren Mentz, Director, External Relations, Middle East/North Africa, CRDF Global Ronald D. Oetting, Professor of Entomology, University of Georgia Riikka Rajalahti, Senior Agricultural Specialist, The World Bank Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive com- ments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the views expressed vii

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viiiACKNOWLEDGMENTS in the report, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Venkatesh (Venky) Narayanamurti, Benjamin Peirce Professor of Technology and Public Policy, Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Science, and director, Science, Technology and Public Policy Program, Harvard Kennedy School. Appointed by NAE, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authors and NAE. In addition, both the National Academies and the U.S. Institute of Peace acknowledge the support of Under Secretary Catherine Woteki and Deputy Under Secretary Ann Bartuska in advancing this work. In addition to strongly advocating this study as a Roundtable activity, they supported the workshop and its planning by seconding Ibrahim Shaqir, Director of the Agricultural Research Program's Office of International Research Programs, to the Institute for four months. Mr. Shaqir's involvement was instrumental in shaping this project and its outcomes.

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Contents 1 INTRODUCTION 1 The Workshop, 3 Discussion Themes, 4 2 CONFLICT IN RURAL SETTINGS 9 Conflict over Land in Rural Settings, 10 Postconflict Reintegration: Problems and Opportunities, 13 Conflict Resolution Among Afghan Herders, 15 Discussion, 17 3 EXTENSION SERVICES IN FRAGILE SOCIETIES 19 Challenges, Needs, and Opportunities, 19 Agricultural Extension in South Sudan, 22 Agricultural Extension in Iraq, 25 Discussion, 26 4 CAPACITY BUILDING AND TRAINING 29 Skills, 29 Legitimacy, 30 Processes, 33 ix

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xCONTENTS 5 ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE AND INSTITUTION BUILDING 35 Options for Working with Ministries of Agriculture, 35 The Need for Decentralization, 36 Ensuring Sustainability, 38 6 TECHNOLOGICAL INFRASTRUCTURE 39 Technological Capabilities for Extension and Peacebuilding, 39 Potential Extensions of ICT, 40 Involvement of the Private Sector, 41 7 FINAL OBSERVATIONS 43 APPENDIXES AAgenda 45 BAttendees 49