Recommendation 4.4: At least one national modeling effort in the next decade should aim to simulate historical and future climate change (i.e., the period 1900-2100) at a resolution of less than 5 km, to enable eddy-resolving models of ocean dynamics and more realistic representation of cumulus convection and land-surface exchanges with the atmosphere. Parallel efforts need to aim for century-scale global atmospheric simulations at 1-2 km, to enable cloud-resolving physics. These national efforts would be facilitated by advances in climate model software infrastructure and computing capability discussed in Chapter 10.

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