team projects with long development cycles and more risk. In order for these efforts to succeed, funding agencies will need to nurture training activities and provide adequate opportunities for stable funding to those who choose climate model development careers both in national laboratories and in academia, so that the best scientists and engineers do not seek greener pastures.

As described above, there are limited data on the existing climate model development workforce or future needs. More information on gaps in the workforce pipeline and future workforce needs could help inform better planning by universities, national laboratories, and funding agencies.

Recommendation 7.1: The United States should attempt to entrain top students into choosing climate model development as a career by providing more graduate and postgraduate training opportunities, enhanced professional recognition and career advancement for participation in climate model development projects, and adequate incentives to attract software engineers who could also choose private-sector careers.

Recommendation 7.2: In order to assess future needs on the climate model development workforce, the United States should obtain quantitative information about the workforce needs and required expertise base to support climate modeling.

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