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Contents Summary 1 1 Introduction 11 Study Context 12 Study Objective and Charge 16 Organization of the Report 17 2 Role of Safety and Environmental Management Systems in Establishing a Culture of Safety 18 Will SEMS Promote a Culture of Safety? 19 Guiding Questions for Evaluation or Audit 26 Assessing the Effectiveness of SEMS and Its Effect on Culture 27 A Word of Hope 29 3 Methods for Assessing Effectiveness 32 Potential Assessment Methods 32 Measuring Trends 41 Summary 41 4 Existing Approaches for Assessing Safety Management Systems 43 U.S. Regulatory Agencies 44 International Regulatory Organizations 55 Center for Offshore Safety: A Self-Policing Safety Organization 67 Summary 70
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5 Role of the Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement in Evaluating Safety and Environmental Management Systems Programs 72 Inspections 72 Audits 74 Ensuring Effectiveness 85 6 Conclusions and Recommended Approach 89 Conclusions 89 Recommended Approach 94 Resources Required 105 References 106 Study Committee Biographical Information 111