1. What is the role of new science education standards and other frameworks (e.g., state environmental literacy plans or standards) in providing opportunities for or barriers to climate change education? How is the new framework similar to or different from current practices?
2. In addition to the areas identified in A Framework for K-12 Science Education, where should climate change education be covered in the curriculum?
3. In the translation of the framework to the standards, what are the opportunities to embed climate change literacy more broadly across disciplines?
4. What are the leverage points for incorporating climate change education into each level of education (elementary, middle, and secondary)?
The discussions were wide-ranging and provided opportunities for participants to exchange ideas and perspectives. A significant focus was the interdisciplinary nature of climate change. One representative from each group reported back, highlighting key points from their conversations, summarized below:
• There is a place for climate change education in most academic subjects. For example, mathematical modeling (mathematics); green technology (vocational education); communication and social discourse (reading, sciences, social studies); and visualization skills (arts) are all aspects of existing curricula that have a role in climate change education. There was some concern, however, that if treated only as a crosscutting concept and/or an important example of multiple scientific concepts, the topic of climate change itself could be lost. Making earth systems a core component of the curriculum, however, would result in the treatment of climate change as less voluntary. Some argued that if cross-disciplinary integration is to be truly meaningful, it will be necessary to reconsider the entire K-12 curriculum.
• Climate change instruction could be packaged as part of a curriculum on sustainability, which might both make it more personal for students and be easier to present in communities. It should be spiraled across the grades, with basics about data collection, graphing, and so forth starting in the early grades, while more complex social and political implications would be addressed at the higher grades.
• If climate change is to be taught effectively across disciplines, teachers in all subjects will need professional development to