boost their understanding and also to develop ways to integrate it into the curriculum. Standards and assessments will need to reflect this interdisciplinary goal, and new sorts of resources for teachers will be needed.

•   It is not enough for a state to include climate change education in its academic goals. Not enough is known about how decisions are made at the district and classroom levels about what to include and how to present it.

•   Standards provide a key support for teachers in dealing with controversial issues, such as climate change—for example, teachers can point to the standards when facing opposition by somebody who may not believe in climate change or may not agree with the subject matter that is being taught.

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