out taking measurements and making observations and connecting what they are doing with what other researchers have been doing.
• It is useful to use misconceptions as a starting point for lessons. It is especially useful to focus on misconceptions that are not particularly controversial, as a prelude to conversation about more difficult ones.
• Teachers could benefit from opportunities to conduct research with practicing scientists so they can be directly exposed to scientific methods and data collection. They also need explicit instruction in how to interpret data. Having a single reliable source for professional development programs and materials related to climate and energy, such as the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN) resources, would be very useful.
• Local professional development that explicitly links the K-14 curricula and establishes partnerships with scientists and researchers will help teachers become teacher-practitioners, rather than just teachers of science.
• The most useful professional development is long term, as opposed to “quick hits,” and helps teachers develop better communication strategies.
• Stronger incentives would encourage teachers to pursue professional development related to climate change, such as explicit state endorsements for earth science and climate literacy, professional development credits, time off, and stipends for teachers who pursue continuing education.