currently serves on the steering committee of the Sustainable Rangelands Roundtable and the Service to the Scientific Community Working Group of the AAAS Science and Human Rights Coalition. Dr. Duke received his B.A. in biology and environmental studies from the University of Vermont in 1977, a Ph.D. in botany (1985) and an M.A. in public policy science from Duke University (1986).

Dr. Rebecca A. Efroymson is a senior scientist in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Her work relates to the interdisciplinary, applied field of ecological risk assessment. She has performed risk assessments for contaminated burial grounds, ponds, streams, and watersheds, with an emphasis on risks to plants, soil invertebrates, and microbial processes from metals and organic chemicals. Her accomplishments include a net environmental benefit analysis framework for remediating contaminated sites. Dr. Efroymson has investigated effects of the application of biosolids to ecosystems. She has developed conceptual ecological risk assessment frameworks for agencies such as the Department of Energy, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Defense, and the Bureau of Land Management, with topics ranging from managing rare species and their habitats to petroleum exploration and production to wastewater treatment systems to wind energy development. She has worked in the fields of ecosystem restoration and ecosystem valuation. Lately, she is developing environmental sustainability indicators for biofuels and developing a causal analysis framework to support the modeling of landuse change impacts of bioenergy. Her education includes a B.A. in biology from LaSalle University, and her M.S. and Ph.D. from Cornell University in environmental toxicology.

Dr. Susan S. Golden is a distinguished professor in the Division of Biological Sciences at the University of California, San Diego. She is currently working on a project consisting of the metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria for the production of biofuels and other molecules of interest. In summary, because cyanobacteria grow photosynthetically using water and CO2, and are easy to manipulate genetically, they are attractive organisms for the production of molecules that have industrial applications. One such application is the production of biofuels as a supplementation of, or eventual replacement of, petroleum-based fuels. The project is using the powerful genetic tools that have been developed for Synechococcus elongatus to explore the production of biofuels in cyanobacteria. Dr. Golden is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. She received her B.A. in biology from Mississippi University for Women and her Ph.D. in genetics from the University of Missouri, Columbia.

Dr. Jennifer Holmgren is the chief executive officer of LanzaTech. She has more than 20 years of experience in the energy sector including a proven track record in the development and commercialization of fuels and chemicals technologies. Prior to joining LanzaTech, she was vice president and general manager of the Renewable Energy and Chemicals Business Unit at UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company. In that role, she led UOP’s renewable business from its inception through to the achievement of significant revenues from the commercialization of multiple novel biofuels technologies. Dr. Holmgren holds a B.Sc. from Harvey Mudd College, a Ph.D. from the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, and an MBA from the University of Chicago. She currently serves on multiple external advisory boards. She is the author or co-author of 50 U.S. patents and 20 scientific publications and is the 2003 recipient of the Council for Chemical Research’s (CCR) Malcolm E. Pruitt Award.

Dr. Donald L. Johnson is a retired vice president of product and process technology at Grain Processing Corporation. He has also been senior development engineer and manager

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