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D Glossary Alcohol fuels Fuels that are organic compounds that contain one or more hydroxyl groups (-OH) attached to one or more of the car- bon atoms in a hydrocarbon chain. Common alcohol fuels include ethanol, methanol, and butanol. Algae A group of aquatic eukaryotic organisms that contain chlo- rophyll. Algae can be microscopic in size (microalgae) or ob- servable to the eye (macroalgae). Aliphatic alcohol An alcohol that contains a hydrocarbon fragment derived from a fully saturated, nonaromatic hydrocarbon. Anoxia The absence of dissolved oxygen. Biodiesel Diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl esters derived from biological material such as vegetable oils, animal fats, and algal oils. Biofuel Fuel derived from biological sources. Biomass Any organic matter that is available on a renewable or recur- ring basis, including agricultural crops and trees, wood and wood residues, plants (including aquatic plants), grasses, al- gae, animal residues, municipal residues, and other residue materials. Biorefinery A commercial-scale processing facility that successfully in- tegrates all processes for extracting and converting biomass feedstocks into a spectrum of saleable products. Carbon sequestration Net transfer of atmospheric carbon dioxide into long-lived carbon pools. 221
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222 APPENDIX D Cellulose A polymer of glucose, (C6H10O5)n, that forms cell walls of most plants. Commercial demonstration The National Renewable Energy Laboratory defines a com- mercial demonstration for biofuel refinery as a facility that has the capacity to process 700 dry tons of feedstock per day. In addition, a commercial demonstration facility is a fully integrated facility that includes all processing steps at a scale sufficient to identify potential operational problems. Cyanobacteria Historically known as blue-green algae, cyanobacteria are prokaryotes that contain chlorophyll. Demonstration facility The National Renewable Energy Laboratory defines a dem- onstration facility for biofuel refinery as one that has the ca- pacity to process 70 dry tons of feedstock per day. A true demonstration facility is a fully integrated facility that in- cludes all of the processing steps that a commercial-scale facility would have. Drop-in fuel Non-petroleum fuel that is compatible with existing infra- structure for petroleum-based fuels. Green diesel Product of hydrotreated triaclyglycerols. Hemicellulose A matrix of polysaccharides present in almost all plant cell walls with cellulose. Hydrocarbon fuels Organic compounds that contains primarily carbon and hy- drogen and only trace amounts of other atoms such as sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen. Hydrocarbon fuels include petroleum- based materials such as alkanes, olefins, and aromatics. Hypoxia Low dissolved oxygen concentrations, generally less than 2 milligrams per liter. Land use Defined by anthropogenic activities, such as agriculture, forestry and urban development, that alter land-surface processes including biogeochemistry, hydrology, and biodiversity. Lignin A complex polymer that occurs in certain plant cell walls. Lignin binds to cellulose fibers and hardens and strengthens the cell walls of plants. Lignocellulosic biomass Plant biomass composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Pilot demonstration The National Renewable Energy Laboratory defines a pilot demonstration for biofuel refinery as a facility that has the capacity to process 1-10 dry tons of feedstock per day. These facilities typically do not include fully integrated processes.