Cellulose

A polymer of glucose, (C6H10O5)n, that forms cell walls of most plants.

Commercial demonstration

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory defines a commercial demonstration for biofuel refinery as a facility that has the capacity to process 700 dry tons of feedstock per day. In addition, a commercial demonstration facility is a fully integrated facility that includes all processing steps at a scale sufficient to identify potential operational problems.

Cyanobacteria

Historically known as blue-green algae, cyanobacteria are prokaryotes that contain chlorophyll.

Demonstration facility

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory defines a demonstration facility for biofuel refinery as one that has the capacity to process 70 dry tons of feedstock per day. A true demonstration facility is a fully integrated facility that includes all of the processing steps that a commercial-scale facility would have.

Drop-in fuel

Non-petroleum fuel that is compatible with existing infrastructure for petroleum-based fuels.

Green diesel

Product of hydrotreated triaclyglycerols.

Hemicellulose

A matrix of polysaccharides present in almost all plant cell walls with cellulose.

Hydrocarbon fuels

Organic compounds that contains primarily carbon and hydrogen and only trace amounts of other atoms such as sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen. Hydrocarbon fuels include petroleum-based materials such as alkanes, olefins, and aromatics.

Hypoxia

Low dissolved oxygen concentrations, generally less than 2 milligrams per liter.

Land use

Defined by anthropogenic activities, such as agriculture, forestry and urban development, that alter land-surface processes including biogeochemistry, hydrology, and biodiversity.

Lignin

A complex polymer that occurs in certain plant cell walls. Lignin binds to cellulose fibers and hardens and strengthens the cell walls of plants.

Lignocellulosic biomass

Plant biomass composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin.

Pilot demonstration

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory defines a pilot demonstration for biofuel refinery as a facility that has the capacity to process 1-10 dry tons of feedstock per day. These facilities typically do not include fully integrated processes.



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