the lignocelluloses used for cellulosic biofuels, and their ability to thrive on water sources and on land sites that are unsuitable for terrestrial farming.

Microalgae contain diverse pigments and metabolites that are desirable as nutritional supplements and colorants. Examples of such products include astaxanthin, an antioxidant derived from the alga Haematococcus, and a high-protein powder derived from cyanobacterial species of Spirulina (Arthrospira) (Gershwin, 2008; Guedes et al., 2011). Commercialscale algal ponds that grow these and other microalgae have operated for more than a decade (Del Campo et al., 2007). However, the scale of deployment for algae cultivation for fuel is expected to be much larger than the scale of algae cultivation for nutraceuticals or other specialty products currently available in the market.

Generating biofuels from algae requires exploiting and expanding the demonstrated commercial-scale growth of algal biomass, and harvesting the relatively accessible carbon stored therein. Carbon is stored within algal cells in various forms, and these molecules can be accessed by different technologies. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic algal cells are rich sources of polar lipids that are associated with membranes; in some cases, the photosynthetic thylakoid membranes are extensive. Carbon is such a crucial element for algae that it is typical for them to store surplus carbon when cellular division is restricted by some factor other than carbon availability—this situation is termed unbalanced growth. In many eukaryotic microalgae, photosynthetic carbon fixation continues under unbalanced conditions. Under extended periods of environmental stress, the excess fixed carbon is stored in the form of neutral lipids called triacylglycerols (TAGs). TAGs are hydrocarbon chains terminated in a carboxylic acid group. The three carboxyl groups are bound to glycerol through an ester linkage. Biofuels containing hydrocarbon chains longer than six carbons are particularly valued because of their high heats of combustion, volatility, and compatibility with existing engines. As discussed later in this chapter, extracted TAGs can be converted to biodiesel using a number of technologies, including transesterification and hydrotreating. Even algal species that do not store large amounts of TAGs can be converted to biofuels through various chemical conversion technologies. For example, species that store polysaccharides can be fermented to yield ethanol, and other biomass processing technologies, such as gasification, pyrolysis, and hydrothermal liquefaction, have shown great utility for the conversion of whole biomass into biofuels.

The incipient algal biofuel industry is emerging and evolving from its early foundations in algae cultivation for fish feedstuff and for human nutraceuticals. Early technology development of processing algae to fuels emphasized the conversion of neutral lipids (TAGs) to biodiesel. Choices of algal feedstocks have been expanding to address the goals of fuel production rather than nutritional content and to exploit new technologies for processing biomass that extend beyond those that focus on TAGs. Ideal attributes for algal feedstock for fuels include rapid and dense growth; efficient use of nutrients, light, and carbon dioxide (CO2) under a range of temperatures; resistance to pests and predators; accumulation of desirable macromolecules that can be processed into fuels; ease of harvest; and the absence of undesirable by-products.

Commercial and research interest in the United States has focused on microalgae, and these species are emphasized in this report. Microalgae have been reported to reach short-term maximum productivities of 50-60 g dry weight per square meter (m2) per day in CO2-enriched open ponds in Hawaii and California (Sheehan et al., 1998). These and other data on productivity from laboratory-scale experiments have promoted the reputation of microalgae as prime candidates for providing cheap biomass feedstocks for food, feedstuff, or energy. Some authors have extrapolated values of maximal biomass productivity and combined them with maximal oil content to predict oil yields of 100 tonnes per hectare



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