2020 and beyond, the committee carefully considered the balance between universities and government facilities in terms of research and workforce development and the role of international collaboration in leveraging future investments. The committee sought to address the means by which the balance between the various objectives of nuclear physics could be sustainable in the long term.

In summary, the committee finds that nuclear science in the United States is a vital enterprise that provides a steady stream of discoveries about the fundamental nature of subatomic matter that is enabling a new understanding of our world. The scientific results and technical developments of nuclear physics are also being used to enhance U.S. competition in innovation and economic growth and are having a tremendous interdisciplinary impact on other fields, such as astrophysics, biomedical physics, condensed matter physics, and fundamental particle physics. The application of this new knowledge is contributing in a fundamental way to the health and welfare of the nation. The committee’s findings and recommendations are summarized below.

FOLLOWING THROUGH WITH THE LONG-RANGE PLAN

The nuclear physics program in the United States has been especially well managed. Among the activities engaged in by the nuclear physics community is a recurring long-range planning process conducted under the auspices of the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) of the Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Science Foundation. This process includes a strong bottom-up emphasis and produces reports every 5 to 7 years that provide guidance to the funding agencies supporting the field. The choices made in NSAC’s latest long-range plan, the Long Range Plan of 2007, have helped to move the field along and set it on its present course, and the scientific opportunities that process recognized as important will enable significant discoveries over the coming decade.

Exploitation of Current Opportunities

Carrying through with the investments recommended in the 2007 Long Range Plan is the consequence of careful planning and sometimes difficult choices. The tradition of community engagement in the planning process has served the U.S. nuclear physics community well. A number of small and a few sizable resources have been developed since 2007 that are providing new opportunities to develop nuclear physics.

Finding: By capitalizing on strategic investments, including the ongoing upgrade of the continuous electron beam accelerator facility (CEBAF) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and the recently com-



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