Nuclear Physics

Exploring the Heart of Matter

Committee on the Assessment of and Outlook for Nuclear Physics
Board on Physics and Astronomy
Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
                   OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
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Nuclear Physics Exploring the Heart of Matter Committee on the Assessment of and Outlook for Nuclear Physics Board on Physics and Astronomy Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS  500 Fifth Street, NW  Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Grant No. PHY-80933 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation and by Grant No. DE-SC0002593 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of Energy. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Cover: “Circles in a Circle” by Wassily Kandinsky. Dedication (p. xv): Photo courtesy of University of California, Berkeley, Department of Physics. International Standard Book Number-13:  978-0-309-0-309-26040-4 International Standard Book Number-10:  0-309-26040-X Library of Congress Control Number:  2013931504 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu; and the Board on Physics and Astronomy, National Research Council, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001; http://www.national-academies.org/bpa. Copyright 2013 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to asso- ciate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON THE ASSESSMENT OF AND OUTLOOK FOR NUCLEAR PHYSICS STUART J. FREEDMAN, University of California at Berkeley, Chair ANI APRAHAMIAN, University of Notre Dame, Vice-Chair RICARDO ALARCON, Arizona State University GORDON A. BAYM, University of Illinois ELIZABETH BEISE, University of Maryland RICHARD F. CASTEN, Yale University JOLIE A. CIZEWSKI, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey ANNA HAYES-STERBENZ, Los Alamos National Laboratory ROY J. HOLT, Argonne National Laboratory KARLHEINZ LANGANKE, GSI Helmholtz Zentrum Darmstadt and Technische Universität Darmstadt CHERRY A. MURRAY, Harvard University WITOLD NAZAREWICZ, University of Tennessee KONSTANTINOS ORGINOS, The College of William and Mary KRISHNA RAJAGOPAL, Massachusetts Institute of Technology R.G. HAMISH ROBERTSON, University of Washington THOMAS J. RUTH, TRIUMF/British Columbia Cancer Research Centre HENDRIK SCHATZ, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory ROBERT E. TRIBBLE, Texas A&M University WILLIAM A. ZAJC, Columbia University Staff JAMES C. LANCASTER, Director DONALD C. SHAPERO, Senior Scholar CARYN J. KNUTSEN, Associate Program Officer TERI G. THOROWGOOD, Administrative Coordinator SARAH NELSON WILK, Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow BETH DOLAN, Financial Associate v

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BOARD ON PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY ADAM S. BURROWS, Princeton University, Chair PHILIP H. BUCKSBAUM, Stanford University, Vice-Chair RICCARDO BETTI, University of Rochester JAMES DRAKE, University of Maryland JAMES EISENSTEIN, California Institute of Technology DEBRA ELMEGREEN, Vassar College PAUL FLEURY, Yale University PETER F. GREEN, University of Michigan LAURA H. GREENE, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign MARTHA P. HAYNES, Cornell University JOSEPH HEZIR, EOP Group, Inc. MARC A. KASTNER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology MARK B. KETCHEN, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center JOSEPH LYKKEN, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory PIERRE MEYSTRE, University of Arizona HOMER A. NEAL, University of Michigan MONICA OLVERA DE LA CRUZ, Northwestern University JOSE N. ONUCHIC, University of California at San Diego LISA J. RANDALL, Harvard University MICHAEL S. TURNER, University of Chicago MICHAEL C.F. WIESCHER, University of Notre Dame Staff DONALD C. SHAPERO, Director JAMES C. LANCASTER, Associate Director, Senior Program Officer DAVID B. LANG, Program Officer CARYN J. KNUTSEN, Associate Program Officer TERI G. THOROWGOOD, Administrative Coordinator BETH DOLAN, Financial Associate vi

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Preface The National Research Council convened the Committee on the Assessment of and Outlook for Nuclear Physics (NP2010 Committee) as part of the decadal studies of physics and astronomy conducted under the auspices of the Board on Physics and Astronomy. The principal goals of the study were to articulate the sci- entific rationale and objectives of the field and then to take a long-term strategic view of U.S. nuclear science in the global context for setting future directions for the field. The complete charge is presented in Appendix A. The NP2010 Committee was composed of experts from universities and national laboratories in the United States, Canada, and Europe, mainly research- ers in nuclear physics but also experts in other disciplines (see Appendix C for biographical information about committee members). The committee met four times in person, with the first meeting taking place on April 9-10, 2010, in Wash- ington, D.C., and the fourth and final meeting on February 12-13, 2011 in Irvine, California. To provide an international context for research taking place in the United States, the NP2010 Committee heard from experts representing nuclear science from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development global nuclear forum, from India, Europe, Canada, and Japan. The federal agencies that support nuclear physics research also briefed the committee, providing their perspectives on the issues to be addressed in this report. The committee thanks all those who met with it and supplied information. Their materials and discussions were valuable contributions to the committee’s deliberations. As chair and vice chair of the committee, we are particularly grateful to the committee members for their willingness to devote many hours to meeting and vii

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viii Preface discussing all of the issues that arose and then to preparing the report. Finally, we thank the NRC staff for their guidance and assistance. Stuart Freedman, Chair Ani Aprahamian, Vice Chair Committee on the Assessment of and Outlook for Nuclear Physics

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Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: John Beacom, Ohio State University, Paul Debevec, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Gerry Garvey, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Barbara Jacak, Stony Brook University, Noemie Koller, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Alice Mignerey, University of Maryland, Martin Savage, University of Washington, Susan J. Seestrom, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Brad Sherrill, Michigan State University, and Priya Vashishta, University of Southern California. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive com- ments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or ix

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x Acknowledgment of Reviewers recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by William H. Press, University of Texas at Austin, as monitor. Appointed by the NRC, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Contents SUMMARY 1 OVERVIEW 9 Introduction, 9 How Did Visible Matter Come Into Being and How Does It Evolve?, 11 How Does Subatomic Matter Organize Itself and What Phenomena Emerge?, 14 Are the Fundamental Interactions That Are Basic to the Structure of Matter Fully Understood?, 22 How Can the Knowledge and Technological Progress Provided by Nuclear Physics Best Be Used to Benefit Society?, 24 Planning for the Future, 28 2 SCIENCE QUESTIONS 30 Introduction, 30 Perspectives on the Structure of Atomic Nuclei, 31 Revising the Paradigms of Nuclear Structure, 32 Neutron-Rich Matter in the Laboratory and the Cosmos, 39 Nature and Origin of Simple Patterns in Complex Nuclei, 41 Toward a Comprehensive Theory of Nuclei, 51 Nuclear Astrophysics, 56 Origin of the Elements, 60 Collapse of a Star, 67 xi

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xii Contents Thermonuclear Explosions, 71 Neutron Stars, 74 Neutrino Messengers, 77 Exploring Quark-Gluon Plasma, 80 Discovery of the Near-Perfect Liquid Plasma, 84 Quantifying QGP Properties and Connecting to the Microscopic Laws of QCD and Its Macroscopic Phase Diagram, 91 Toward a Theoretical Framework for Strongly Coupled Fluids, 100 The Strong Force and the Internal Structure of Neutrons and Protons, 104 The Basic Properties of Protons and Neutrons: Spatial Maps of Charge and Magnetism, 106 Momentum and Spin Within the Proton, 117 In-Medium Effects: Building Nuclei with QCD, 121 Identifying the Full Array of Bound States—The Spectroscopy of Mesons and Baryons, 128 Toward the Next Steps: An Electron-Ion Collider, 130 Fundamental Symmetries, 132 A Decade of Discovery, 133 The Next Steps, 138 The Precision Frontier, 138 Two Challenges, 143 Underground Science, 147 Fundamental Symmetries Studies in the United States and Around the World, 148 The Workforce, 149 HIGHLIGHT: DIAGNOSING CANCER WITH PET, 150 3 SOCIETAL APPLICATIONS AND BENEFITS 153 Diagnosing and Curing Medical Conditions, 154 Nuclear Imaging of Disease and Functions, 154 New Radioisotopes for Targeted Radioimmunotherapy, 156 Future Technologies in Nuclear Medicine, 158 Making Our Borders and Our Nation More Secure, 158 Protecting Our Borders from Proliferation of Nuclear Materials, 159 Certifying the Nation’s Nuclear Stockpile, 161 The Greatest Challenge: Nuclear Devices in the Hands of Terrorists or a Rogue Nation, 165 Carbon-Emission-Free Energy for the Future, 165 Nuclear Fission Reactors, 165 Nuclear Fusion Energy, 168

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Contents xiii Innovations in Technologies and Applications of Nuclear Science, 170 Addressing Challenges in Medicine, Industry, and Basic Science with Accelerators, 171 Free-Electron Lasers, 173 Information and Computer Technologies, 174 Cosmic Rays, Electronic Devices, and Nuclear Accelerators, 177 Helping to Understand Climate Effects One Nucleus at a Time, 178 HIGHLIGHT: FUTURE LEADERS IN NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND ITS APPLICATIONS: STEWARDSHIP SCIENCE GRADUATE FELLOWS, 182 4 GLOBAL NUCLEAR SCIENCE 186 United States, 191 Europe, 193 FAIR and GSI, 194 GANIL and SPIRAL2, 195 CERN, 196 Other European Facilities, 198 Asia, Africa, and Australia, 199 Canada and Latin America, 204 U.S. Nuclear Science Leadership in the G-20, 206 HIGHLIGHT: THE FUKUSHIMA EVENT—A NUCLEAR DETECTIVE STORY, 209 5 NUCLEAR SCIENCE GOING FORWARD 213 Ways of Making Decisions, 213 The Long-Range Plan Process, 213 Planning in a Global Context, 215 The Need for Nimbleness, 217 A Nuclear Workforce for the Twenty-first Century, 218 Challenges and Critical Shortages, 218 The Role of Graduate Students and Postdocs, 219 Balance of Investments in Facilities and Universities, 221 Mechanisms for Ensuring a Robust Pipeline, 221 Broadening the Nuclear Workforce, 225 HIGHLIGHT: NUCLEAR CRIME SCENE FORENSICS, 227

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xiv Contents 6 RECOMMENDATIONS 230 Following Through with the Long-Range Plan, 231 Building a Foundation for the Future, 234 APPENDIXES A STATEMENT OF TASK 239 B MEETING AGENDAS 240 C BIOGRAPHIES OF COMMITTEE MEMBERS 244 D ACRONYMS 253

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STUART JAY FREEDMAN 1944-2012 The committee dedicates this report to Stuart Freedman, its chair, who passed away unexpectedly on November 10, 2012. Stuart brought intellectual leadership, humor, friendship, and the highest standards of scientific excellence to his work. His loss is deeply felt throughout the community of nuclear physicists. xv

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