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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by Grant No. PHY-80933 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation and by Grant No. DE-SC0002593 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of Energy. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

Cover: “Circles in a Circle” by Wassily Kandinsky.

Dedication (p. xv): Photo courtesy of University of California, Berkeley, Department of Physics.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-0-309-26040-4
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-26040-X
Library of Congress Control Number: 2013931504

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