Medicine. Dr. Biros has also served as a member of institutional review boards (IRBs) at the University of Minnesota and Hennepin County Medical Center for a total of 15 years. She is the principal investigator for the Minnesota Hub of the Neurological Emergencies Treatment Trials research network, funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Dr. Biros founded the Coalition of Acute Resuscitation Researchers that worked with the Food and Drug Administration in the early 1990s to develop the current regulations related to exception from informed consent for emergency research. She recently facilitated a workshop for many federal regulatory agencies to consider IRB options for multicenter trials. She completed her master’s of science in biochemistry and her medical degree at the University of Minnesota.

Divya Chandra, Ph.D., S.M., is a principal technical advisor in aviation human factors at the Department of Transportation’s Volpe National Transportation Systems Center. She holds a Ph.D. in experimental psychology from the University of Michigan (1993) as well as degrees in aeronautical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) (S.M., 1989) and the University of Michigan (B.S., 1987). Dr. Chandra’s research interests include the design and evaluation of flight deck technologies. Her latest project supports the Federal Aviation Administration in developing advanced instrument procedures to support performance-based navigation operations. Her projects involve significant collaboration with the aviation industry, regulators, operators, and manufacturers. Her research has impacted international recommendations for electronic flight bags and aeronautical charts. Before joining the Volpe Center in 1999, Dr. Chandra was a technical staff member in the Air Traffic Surveillance group at MIT’s Lincoln Laboratory.

Ian D. Graham, Ph.D., FCAHS, is associate professor in the School of Nursing at the University of Ottawa and senior scientist in the Clinical Epidemiology Program at the Ottawa Hospital Research Institute. He is also a principal research fellow in translation at the South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, Australia, and an adjunct associate professor in the School of Nursing at Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario. From 2006 to 2012 he held the position of vice president of the Knowledge Translation and Public Outreach Portfolio at the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR). At the CIHR, he was responsible for knowledge translation (the process of research use), part-

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