the service members who would be seeking treatment, and conducted literature searches and focus groups to determine the most effective content to include in the campaign (Acosta et al., 2012; DCoE, 2012). While RAND did conduct a recent study to assess the content, design, and dissemination of the campaign (Acosta et al., 2012), to date, no outcome evaluation has been conducted. DCoE does require the collection of various process indicators, such as the number of visitors to the website, but without further evaluation the committee cannot determine if this program is effective at preventing SUDs.

Military and Civilian Drug Testing Program

Purpose and Goals Clinical Focus Program Evaluation/Outcomes Target Population EBPs
  • The military and civilian drug tesring programs are a primary component of rhe installation Drug Demand Reduction Programs. The program works to ensure a drug-free workplace.
  • Prevention
  • Percentage of mandated population resting per year
  • Rate of [.intestable samples
  • Rate of verified positive samples
  • Active Duty
  • Reserve
  • EBPs are utilized

NOTES: This table is included in the section on Air Force programs in Appendix C of the Comprehensive Plan, but is, in fact, a DoD-wide initiative. In addition, the Navy makes use of a software tool called the Navy Drug Screening Program that randomizes testing. EBP = evidence-based practice.

The Military and Civilian Drug Testing Program is identified in the Comprehensive Plan as both a prevention and screening program. The program is guided by policy (DoD, 1994), and the stated prevention aim is deterrence. The implied prevention mediator is increasing the perceived negative consequences of positive drug testing rather than drug use per se. As described in Chapter 5, however, there is no clear evidence from controlled studies that drug testing is an effective prevention strategy. While the decline in rates of substance use in the military correlates temporally with the inception of drug testing for specific substances (see Chapter 2), there have been no studies assessing the causal relationship between the two; therefore, the committee cannot report on the effectiveness of the drug testing program in preventing SUDs.

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