TABLE I-1 Ratings of Policy-Relevant Strategies and Interventions

Strategy or Intervention Effectiveness Breadth of Research Support Cross-National Testing Cost to Implement or Sustain Comments
Pricing and Taxation         Generally evaluated in terms of how price changes affect population level alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems and beverage preferences.
Alcohol taxes +++ +++ +++ Low Increased taxes reduce alcohol consumption and harm. Effectiveness depends on government oversight and control of the total alcohol supply.
Minimum price ? + + Low Logic based on price theory, but there is very little evidence of effectiveness. Competition regulations and trade policies may restrict implementation.
Bans on price discounts and promotions ? + + Low Only weak studies in general populations of the effect of restrictions on consumption or harm; effectiveness depends on availability of alternative forms of cheap alcohol.
Differential price by beverage + + ++ Low Higher prices for distilled spirits shifts consumption to lower alcohol content beverages resulting in less overall consumption. Evidence for the impact of tax breaks on low alcohol products is suggestive, but not comprehensive.
Special or additional taxation on alcopops and youth-oriented beverages + + ++ Low Evidence that higher prices reduce consumption of alcopops by young drinkers without complete substitution; no studies of impact on harms.
Regulating Physical A vailability         Generally evaluated in terms of how changes in availability affect population level alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems.
Ban on sales +++ +++ ++ High Can reduce consumption and harm substantially, but often with adverse side-effects from black market, which is expensive to suppress. Ineffective without enforcement.

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