(MBHO) and disease management standards. She has also been a member of the board of directors for the IOM’s Neuroscience and Behavioral Health and Health Care Services Boards and has served on several IOM committees. Dr. Robinson Beale participated on the National Quality Forum’s board of directors as co-chair for the Evidence-Based Practices to Treat Substance Use Disorders Steering Committee. Before joining OptumHealth Behavioral Solutions, she was chief medical officer for PacifiCare Behavioral Health. She also served as senior vice president and chief medical officer for CIGNA Behavioral Health, national medical director for Blue Cross Blue Shield, executive medical director of medical and care management clinical programs for Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan, and senior medical director for behavioral medicine for Health Alliance Plan. Dr. Robinson Beale received her medical degree from Wayne State University and her psychiatric training at Detroit Psychiatric Institute. She is certified in psychiatry by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology.

Robert M. Bray, Ph.D., a fellow of the APA, is a senior research psychologist and director of the Substance Abuse Epidemiology and Military Behavioral Health Program at RTI International. His research interests focus on the epidemiology of substance use and other health behaviors in military and civilian populations, with an emphasis on understanding the prevalence, causes, correlates, and consequences of these behaviors. He has directed nine comprehensive worldwide Department of Defense health behavior surveys of active duty military personnel that have furnished the most widely cited data on substance use and health behaviors in the military and is preparing a book summarizing findings from these studies. He has directed and supported other studies in the military assessing health-related behaviors among the reserve component, risk and protective factors for initiation of tobacco and alcohol use, mental fitness and resilience among Army basic trainees, and a Web-based intervention to reduce heavy alcohol use. He is currently leading the RTI component of a large multi-institutional clinical trial to optimize usual primary care for soldiers with posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. Dr. Bray is principal editor of Drug Use in Metropolitan America, which integrates findings from a large-scale study of drug use among diverse populations in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. He has published and presented widely in the area of substance use– and health-related behaviors. Dr. Bray previously served on an IOM committee examining drug use in the workplace. He received his Ph.D. in social psychology from the University of Illinois and his M.S. and A.B. degrees in psychology from Brigham Young University.

Raul Caetano, M.D., Ph.D., is regional dean and professor of epidemiology at the Dallas Regional Campus of the University of Texas School of Public



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