Appendix D

Biosketches of Committee Members and Staff

Mark D. Smith, M.D., M.B.A. (Chair) is president and CEO of the California HealthCare Foundation. The Foundation is an independent philanthropy, headquartered in Oakland, California, dedicated to improving the health of the people of California through its three program areas: Innovations for the Underserved, Better Chronic Disease Care, and Market and Policy Monitor. A board-certified internist, Dr. Smith is a member of the clinical faculty at the University of California, San Francisco, and an attending physician at the Positive Health Program for AIDS care at San Francisco General Hospital. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and serves on the board of the National Business Group on Health. Prior to joining the California HealthCare Foundation, Dr. Smith was executive vice president of the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation and previously served as associate director of the AIDS Service and assistant professor of medicine and of health policy and management at Johns Hopkins University. He has served on the Performance Measurement Committee of the National Committee for Quality Assurance and the editorial board of the Annals of Internal Medicine. Dr. Smith received a B.A. in Afro-American Studies from Harvard College, an M.D. from the School of Medicine at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and an M.B.A. with a concentration in health care administration from the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania.

James P. Bagian, M.D., P.E., is a professor of engineering and director of the Center for Health Engineering and Patient Safety at the University of Michigan. Previously, he served as the first director of the Department



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Appendix D Biosketches of Committee Members and Staff Mark D. Smith, M.D., M.B.A. (Chair) is president and CEO of the Cali- fornia HealthCare Foundation. The Foundation is an independent philan- thropy, headquartered in Oakland, California, dedicated to improving the health of the people of California through its three program areas: Innova- tions for the Underserved, Better Chronic Disease Care, and Market and Policy Monitor. A board-certified internist, Dr. Smith is a member of the clinical faculty at the University of California, San Francisco, and an attend- ing physician at the Positive Health Program for AIDS care at San Francisco General Hospital. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and serves on the board of the National Business Group on Health. Prior to joining the California HealthCare Foundation, Dr. Smith was executive vice president of the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation and previously served as associate director of the AIDS Service and assistant professor of medicine and of health policy and management at Johns Hopkins University. He has served on the Performance Measurement Committee of the National Committee for Quality Assurance and the editorial board of the Annals of Internal Medicine. Dr. Smith received a B.A. in Afro-American Studies from Harvard College, an M.D. from the School of Medicine at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and an M.B.A. with a concentration in health care administration from the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania. James P. Bagian, M.D., P.E., is a professor of engineering and director of the Center for Health Engineering and Patient Safety at the University of Michigan. Previously, he served as the first director of the Department 401

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402 BEST CARE AT LOWER COST of Veterans Affairs’ (VA’s) National Center for Patient Safety (NCPS) and as the VA’s first chief patient safety officer from 1999 to 2010. As NCPS director, he was responsible for the development and implementation of techniques designed to reduce avoidable injuries and deaths among pa- tients throughout the VA’s 154 medical centers and associated clinics and long-term care facilities. From 1980 to 1995, Dr. Bagian served as a NASA astronaut; he is a veteran of two space flights (STS-29 in 1989 and STS-40 in 1991). He took part in both the planning and provision of emergency medical and rescue support for the first six space shuttle flights. In 1986, Dr. Bagian served as an investigator for the Space Shuttle Challenger ac- cident and as the astronaut on-scene adviser for the salvage operations of the Space Shuttle Challenger crew module; he was the individual who dove and made the positive identification of the Challenger crew module debris on the ocean floor. Subsequently, he was responsible for the development and implementation of the pressure suit used for crew escape and other crew survival and escape equipment used on Shuttle missions. He was also selected in 2003 to be chief flight surgeon and medical advisor for the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation Board. Dr. Bagian is an adjunct assistant professor of military and emergency medicine at the Uni- formed Services University of Health Sciences at F. Edward Hebert School of Medicine and a clinical associate professor of preventive medicine and community health at the University of Texas Medical Branch. In addition, he is a colonel in the U.S. Air Force Reserve and serves on the Trauma and Injury Subcommittee of the Defense Health Board for the Department of Defense. He received a B.S. degree in mechanical engineering from Drexel University and his M.D. degree from Thomas Jefferson University. He is a diplomate of the American Board of Preventive Medicine, with a sub- specialty in aerospace medicine. Dr. Bagian was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 2000 and to the IOM in 2003. Anthony S. Bryk, Ed.D., is the ninth president of The Carnegie Founda- tion for the Advancement of Teaching. He held the Spencer Chair in Or- ganizational Studies in the School of Education and the Graduate School of Business at Stanford University from 2004 until assuming Carnegie’s presidency in September 2008. Previously, he held the Marshall Field IV Professor of Education post in the sociology department at the University of Chicago. There he founded the Center for Urban School Improvement, which supports reform efforts in the Chicago Public Schools. Dr. Bryk also founded the Consortium on Chicago School Research, which has produced a range of studies to advance and assess urban school reform. In addition, he has made contributions to the development of new statistical methods in educational research. At Carnegie, he is leading work on strengthening the research and development infrastructure for improving teaching and

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APPENDIX D 403 learning. Dr. Bryk holds a B.S. from Boston College and an Ed.D. from Harvard University, and was recently honored by Boston College with an honorary doctorate for his contributions to education reform. Gail H. Cassell, Ph.D., retired as vice president, Scientific Affairs and Dis- tinguished Lilly Research Scholar for Infectious Diseases, Eli Lilly and Com- pany, in October 2010. She is former Charles H. McCauley professor and chair of the Department of Microbiology at the University of Alabama Schools of Medicine and Dentistry at Birmingham, a department that ranked first in research funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) during the decade of her leadership. She obtained her bachelor’s degree from the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa and in 1993 was selected as one of the top 31 female graduates of the twentieth century. Dr. Cassell obtained her doctorate in microbiology from the University of Alabama at Birmingham and was selected as its 2003 distinguished alumnus. She is a past president of the American Society for Microbiology and was a member of the NIH director’s advisory committee and of the advisory council of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. She was named to the original Board of Scientific Councilors of the Center for Infectious Diseases, Cen- ters for Disease Control, and served as chair of the board and a member of the advisory board of the director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. After the terrorist attacks of 2001, she was appointed to the Secretary of Health and Human Services Advisory Council on Public Health Preparedness. As a member of the Science Board of the federal Food and Drug Administration, Advisory Committee to the Commissioner, she received a Commissioner’s Citation Award for authoring the 2007 report FDA: Science and Mission at Risk. Since 1996, she has been a member of the U.S.-Japan Cooperative Medical Science Program, responsible for advis- ing the respective governments on joint research agendas. Dr. Cassell has served on several editorial boards of scientific journals and has authored more than 250 articles and book chapters. She has received national and international awards and an honorary degree for her research in infectious diseases. She is a member of the IOM and is currently serving a second term on the IOM Council. Dr. Cassell has been intimately involved in the establishment of science policy and legislation related to biomedical research and public health. For 9 years she was chair of the Public and Scientific Affairs Board of the American Society for Microbiology. She has served as an adviser on infectious diseases and indirect costs of research to the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, and she has been an invited participant in numerous congressional hearings and briefings related to infectious diseases, antimicrobial resistance, and biomedical research. She has served two terms on the Liaison Committee on Medical Education, the accrediting body for U.S. medical schools, as well as other national

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404 BEST CARE AT LOWER COST committees involved in establishing policies on training in the biomedical sciences. She is a past member of the board of directors of the Burroughs Wellcome Fund, Research!America, the leadership council of the School of Public Health of Harvard University, and the Advisory Council of the School of Nursing of Johns Hopkins. She is currently a member of the NIH Science Management Review Board and a member of the advisory council of NIH’s Fogarty International Center, the executive committee of the Visiting Board of the School of Medicine of Columbia University, the board of advisors of the School of Public Health of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and the board of trustees of Moorehouse School of Medicine. James B. Conway, M.S., is an adjunct lecturer at the Harvard School of Public Health, principal of the Governance and Leadership Group of Pascal Metrics in Washington, DC, and a senior fellow at the Institute for Health- care Improvement (IHI). From 2006 to 2009, he was senior president of IHI, and from 2005-2006, he was senior fellow. During 1995-2005, Mr. Conway was executive vice president and chief operating officer of Dana- Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) in Boston. Prior to joining DFCI, he had a 27-year career at Children’s Hospital, Boston, in radiology administration and finance and as assistant hospital director. His areas of expertise and interest include governance and executive leadership, patient safety, change management, and patient-/family-centered care. He holds an M.S. degree from Lesley College, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Mr. Conway has received numerous awards, including the 1999 Association for Continuing Higher Education Massachusetts Regents Award and the 2001 first Individual Leadership Award in Patient Safety from the Joint Commission on Accredi- tation of Healthcare Organizations and the National Committee for Qual- ity Assurance. In 2008, he received the Picker Award for Excellence in the Advancement of Patient Centered Care and in 2009 the Mary Davis Barber Heart of Hospice Award from the Massachusetts Hospice and Palliative Care Federation. A fellow of the American College of Healthcare Execu- tives, Mr. Conway is a member of the Clinical Issues Advisory Council of the Massachusetts Hospital Association and is a distinguished advisor to the Lucian Leape Institute for the National Patient Safety Foundation. He has served as board chair, The Partnership for Healthcare Excellence; board member, Winchester Hospital; board member, the American Cancer Soci- ety, New England Region; and board member, Medically Induced Trauma Support Services. He also served as a member of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts Quality and Cost Council, 2006-2010. Helen B. Darling, M.A., is president and CEO of the National Business Group on Health, a nonprofit membership organization devoted exclusively to providing solutions to its employer-members’ most important health care

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APPENDIX D 405 problems and representing large employers on health policy issues. The organization’s 303 members, including 64 of the Fortune 100 companies in 2010, purchase health benefits for more than 50 million employees, retirees, and dependents. Dr. Darling received WorldatWork’s prestigious Keystone Award for sustained contributions to the field of human resources in 2009 and the President’s Award from the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine in 2010. She serves on the Committee on Performance Measurement (National Committee for Quality Assurance) (co-chair for 10 years); the Medical Advisory Panel, Technology Evalua- tion Center (Blue Cross Blue Shield Association); the Medicare Coverage Advisory Committee; and the boards of the National Quality Forum and the Reagan-Udall Foundation. Previously, she directed the purchasing of health and disability benefits at Xerox Corporation. Ms. Darling was health advisor to Senator David Durenberger on the Senate Finance Committee. She directed three studies at the IOM. She received a master’s degree in demography/sociology and a B.S. degree in history/english, cum laude, from the University of Memphis. T. Bruce Ferguson, Jr., M.D., is professor and inaugural chairman of the Department of Cardiovascular Sciences at the East Carolina Heart Institute and the Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University (ECU). He is a board-certified cardiothoracic surgeon who specializes in adult cardio- thoracic surgery. He came to North Carolina from Louisiana, where he was chief of cardiac surgery at Louisiana State University (LSU) Health Sciences Center in New Orleans prior to Hurricane Katrina. While in Louisiana, he received funding from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality’s (AHRQ’s) Transforming Healthcare Quality through Information Technol- ogy program to begin development of a longitudinal cardiovascular infor- mation system for the statewide Charity Hospital System population. He served for 6 years as inaugural chair of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons’ (STS’) Council on Quality, Research, and Patient Safety, which oversees all aspects of the Society’s national database efforts, in collaboration with the Duke Clinical Research Institute. He was principal investigator for the Society’s two clinical trials in quality improvement from 1999 through 2007, funded by AHRQ. Dr. Ferguson is currently co-principal investiga- tor for the combined Duke-ECU clinical site for the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Cardiac Surgical Network and is principal investigator for the Clinical Research Skills Development Core. He is a fellow of the American Heart Association; a member of the Informatics Committee and the Surgical Council for the American College of Cardiology; and chair of the STS Workforce on Health Policy, Reform and Advocacy. He received his degree in chemistry from Williams College and his M.D. from Washington

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406 BEST CARE AT LOWER COST University in St. Louis. He completed his training in general surgery and cardiothoracic surgery at Duke University Medical Center. Ginger L. Graham, M.B.A., is a senior lecturer at Harvard Business School, president and CEO of Two Trees Consulting, and a public speaker and health care consultant. She is the former president and CEO of Amylin Pharmaceuticals, a biopharmaceutical company based in San Diego, Cali- fornia, focused on diabetes and obesity. During Ms. Graham’s tenure at Amylin, the company launched two first-in-class medicines for people with diabetes, was listed on the Nasdaq 100, and was rated as one of the top 10 places in the industry for scientists to work. Prior to her time at Amylin, she was group chairman, Office of the President, for Guidant Corporation, a major cardiovascular medical device manufacturer based in Indianapolis. During her tenure at Guidant, the company launched the world’s leading stent platform, was listed as a Fortune 500 company, was recognized by Fortune magazine as one of the best companies to work for in America, and was included among Industry Week magazine’s 100 best managed compa- nies in the world. Ms. Graham has received numerous awards and honors, including being named as Emerging Company Executive of the Year by the Global Health Council in 2005, a finalist for Marketwatch’s CEO of the Year in 2006, and the American Diabetes Association’s Woman of Valor award in 2006. She was included on Pharma VOICE’s “100 of the Most Inspiring People” list in 2006, and World Pharmaceuticals magazine named her number 10 on a list of the 40 most influential people in the industry in 2007. Ms. Graham serves on the boards of directors for Walgreen Co.; Genomic Health, Inc.; Proteus Biomedical Pharmaceutical Systems Divi- sion; ICAT Managers; Praline Holdings, Ltd.; and the American Diabetes Association Research Foundation, where she serves as vice chair. She is a member of the Harvard Business School Health Industry Alumni Advisory Board, the University of Arkansas chancellor’s board of advisors, and the University of Colorado Initiative for Molecular Biotechnology. She also serves on the advisory boards for the Kellogg Center for Executive Women and the Women Business Leaders of the US Health Care Industry Founda- tion. She serves as well on the editorial advisory board for the Journal of Life Sciences, frequently speaks at business schools, and has written for Harvard Business Review. She received a B.S. in agricultural econom- ics from the University of Arkansas and holds an M.B.A. from Harvard University. George C. Halvorson, is chairman and CEO of Kaiser Permanente, head- quartered in Oakland, California. Kaiser Permanente is the nation’s largest nonprofit health plan and hospital system, serving about 8.6 million mem- bers and generating $42 billion in annual revenue. It has been investing

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APPENDIX D 407 heavily in electronic medical records and physician support systems over the past 5 years. Kaiser Permanente also is a leader in electronic connectivity be- tween doctors and patients, with patients choosing more than 6 million “e- visits” this year instead of face-to-face clinical visits. Mr. Halvorson serves on the IOM’s Roundtable on Value & Science-Driven Health Care, the American Hospital Association’s Advisory Committee on Health Reform, and the Commonwealth Fund Commission on a High Performance Health System. He also serves on the boards of America’s Health Insurance Plans and the Alliance of Community Health Plans. He chairs the International Federation of Health Plans and co-chairs IHI’s Annual National Forum on Quality Improvement in Health Care. In 2009, he chaired the World Economic Forum’s Health Governors meetings in Davos. Mr. Halvorson ­ has received the Modern Healthcare/Health Information and Management Systems Society CEO IT Achievement Award, and the Workgroup for Electronic Data Interchange awarded him the 2009 Louis Sullivan Award for leadership and achievements in advancing health care quality. He has written several books on health care reform, including the recently released Health Care Will Not Reform Itself: A User’s Guide to Refocusing and Re- forming American Health Care. He also wrote Health Care Reform Now!, Health Care Co-ops in Uganda, Strong Medicine, and Epidemic of Care as guidebooks for health care reform. Mr. Halvorson has served as an advisor to the governments of Uganda, Great Britain, Jamaica, and Russia on is- sues of health policy and financing. His strong commitment to diversity and interethnic healing has led him to his current writing project, a book about ­ racial prejudice around the world. Prior to joining Kaiser Permanente, Mr. Halvorson was president and CEO of HealthPartners, headquartered in ­ Minneapolis. With more than 30 years of health care management experi- ence, he has also held several senior management positions with Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Minnesota. Brent C. James, M.D., M.Stat., is chief quality officer and executive director of the Institute for Health Care Delivery Research at Intermountain Health- care in Salt Lake City. For more than 20 years, Dr. James has championed the standardization of clinical care through data collection and analysis on a wide variety of treatment protocols and complex care processes. In the tradition of medical pioneers such as Florence Nightingale, Abraham Flexner, and William Osler, he has devoted himself to using quality im- provement tools to better understand the cause-and-effect relationships among various practice and environmental factors. In addition to his du- ties at Intermountain Health Care, Dr. James is adjunct professor at the University of Utah School of Medicine, Department of Family and Preven- tive Medicine. He also holds a visiting lectureship in the Department of Health Policy and Management at the Harvard School of Public Health. In

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408 BEST CARE AT LOWER COST addition, he has served with a number of national task forces and commit- tees that examine health care quality and cost control, as well as AHRQ, and was recently appointed by the federal comptroller to an advisory group on making American health care more accessible and affordable. Dr. James has received numerous national awards recognizing his vision and energy in making the U.S. health care system better. Craig A. Jones, M.D., is director of the Vermont Blueprint for Health, a program established by the State of Vermont under the leadership of its governor, legislature, and bipartisan Health Care Reform Commission. The Blueprint was developed to guide a statewide transformation resulting in seamless and well-coordinated health services for all citizens, with an em- phasis on prevention. It is intended to improve health care for individuals, improve the health of the population, and result in more affordable health care. Previously, Dr. Jones was an assistant professor in the Department of Pediatrics at the Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern Cali- fornia, and director of the Division of Allergy/Immunology and director of the Allergy/Immunology Residency Training Program in the Depart- ment of Pediatrics at the Los Angeles County + University of Southern California (LAC+USC) Medical Center. He was director, in charge of the design, implementation, and management, of the Breathmobile Program, a program using mobile clinics, team-based care, and health information technology to deliver ongoing preventive care to inner-city children with asthma at their schools and at county clinics. The program evolved from community outreach to provide more fully integrated pediatric asthma disease management for the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services and has spread to several other communities across the country. Dr. Jones has published papers, abstracts, and textbook chapters on topics related to health services, health outcomes, and allergy and immunology in Pediatric Research, Pediatrics, Journal of Pediatrics, Pediatrics in Review, Journal of Clinical Immunology, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunol- ogy, Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, CHEST, and Disease Management. He served as executive committee and board member for the Southern California Chapter of the Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America, as well chapter president. He is a past president of the Los Angeles Society of Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology, and a past president and a member of the board of directors for the California Society of Allergy Asthma, and Immunology. Dr. Jones received his undergraduate degree at the University of California, San Diego, and his M.D. degree from the Uni- versity of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio. He completed his internship and residency in pediatrics at LAC+USC Medical Center, where he also completed his fellowship in allergy and clinical immunology.

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APPENDIX D 409 Gary S. Kaplan, M.D., has served as chairman and CEO of the Virginia Mason Health System since 2000. He received his medical degree from the University of Michigan and is board certified in internal medicine. Since Dr. Kaplan became chairman and CEO, Virginia Mason has received significant national and international recognition, including being recognized as one of 37 hospitals and 8 children’s hospitals designated as top hospitals in the nation by the Leapfrog Group for the fourth consecutive year. Virginia Mason is also a national leader in deploying the Virginia Mason Production System—reducing the high costs of health care while improving quality, safety, and efficiency. In addition to his patient-care duties and position as CEO, Dr. Kaplan is a clinical professor at the University of Washington. He has been recognized for his service and contribution to many regional and national boards. He currently serves on the boards of IHI, the American Medical Group Association, the Medical Group Management Association, the Washington Healthcare Forum, the Special Olympics, and the Greater Seattle Chamber of Commerce. He also is current chair of the National Pa- tient Safety Foundation Board. In 2007, Dr. Kaplan was designated a fellow in the American College of Physician Executives. He was recently named one of the 50 most powerful physician executives in health care by Mod- ern Healthcare and Modern Physician magazines. In 2009, he was named the 16th most influential U.S. physician leader in health care by Modern Healthcare magazine. In 2009, Dr. Kaplan received the John M. Eisenberg Award from the National Quality Forum and the Joint Commission for Individual Achievement at the national level for his outstanding work and commitment to patient safety and quality. Additionally, he was recognized by the Medical Group Management Association and the American College of Medical Practice Executives as the recipient of the Harry J. Harwick Life- time Achievement Award, which recognizes outstanding national contribu- tions to health care administration, delivery, and education while advancing the field of medical practice management. Arthur A. Levin, M.P.H., is director of the Center for Medical Consum- ers. He served as the consumer representative on the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Com- mittee from its establishment in 2003 through May 2007. He continues to participate as a consumer expert on FDA advisory panels by invitation. Mr. Levin is the only consumer member of the New York State Department of Health Healthcare Acquired Infection Reporting Workgroup and co-wrote the original legislation that mandated public reporting of hospital-acquired infections in the state. From 1998 to 2000, he served on the IOM’s Com- mittee on the Quality of Health Care in America. That committee issued the landmark report To Err Is Human, which garnered international attention for its depiction of medical errors as a leading cause of preventable death

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410 BEST CARE AT LOWER COST and injury in the United States, as well as Crossing the Quality Chasm, which set goals for reforming the nation’s health care system. Mr. Levin subsequently served on IOM committees that assessed federal government efforts to improve patient safety in the health systems it manages, reported on the performance of the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, and recommended national standards for system- atic evidence reviews and clinical guidelines. In 2009, he was a member of the IOM committee advising the Secretary of Health and Human Services on how to allocate $400 million in stimulus money targeted for compara- tive effectiveness research. Mr. Levin serves as chair of the National ­ uality Q Forum’s Consensus Standards Approval Committee and co-chair of the National Committee for Quality Assurance’s Committee on Performance Measurement. He is a board member of the IOM, Board on Health Care Services; the Foundation for Informed Medical Decision Making; the Citi- zens Advocacy Center; THINC, a regional health information project in the mid-Hudson Valley; and the New York eHealth Collaborative. He is also the consumer representative on the steering committee of the Centers for Education and Research on Therapeutics. Eugene Litvak, Ph.D., is president and CEO of the Institute for Healthcare Optimization. He is also an adjunct professor in operations management in the Department of Health Policy & Management at the Harvard School of Public Health, where he teaches the course “Operations Management in Service Delivery Organizations.” Previously, he was co-founder (with Michael C. Long, M.D.) and director of the Program for the Management of Variability in Health Care Delivery at the Boston University (BU) Health Policy Institute and a professor at the BU School of Management. Before joining BU, Dr. Litvak was a faculty member at the Harvard Center for Risk Analysis. His research interests include operations management in health care delivery organizations and operations research. He is the author of more than 60 publications in these areas. Since 1995 he has led the devel- opment and practical application of the innovative variability methodology (which he introduced together with Dr. Long) for cost reduction and quality improvement in health care delivery systems. This methodology has resulted in significant quality improvement and multimillion dollar improvements in the margins for every hospital that has applied it. Dr. Litvak was a member of the IOM Committee on the Future of Emergency Care in the United States Health System. He is a member of the National Advisory Committee to the American Hospital Association for Improving Quality, Patient Safety and Performance and is principal investigator for many hospital operations improvement projects. Dr. Litvak frequently presents as an invited lecturer at national and international meetings. He also serves as a consultant on operations improvement to several major hospitals.

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APPENDIX D 411 David O. Meltzer, M.D., Ph.D., is an associate professor in the Department of Medicine and an associated faculty member in the Harris School and the Department of Economics at the University of Chicago. His research explores problems in health economics and public policy, with a focus on the theoretical foundations of medical cost-effectiveness analysis and the determinants of the cost and quality of care, especially in teaching hospitals. Dr. Meltzer has conducted several studies comparing the use of doctors who specialize in inpatient care (“hospitalists”) with the use of traditional physi- cians in academic medical centers and exploring the economic forces that have led to the growing use of hospitalists in the United States. His work in cost-effectiveness analysis has included the use of value-of-information analysis to inform research priorities and studies of the value of individual- ized care. Dr. Meltzer received his M.D. and Ph.D. in economics from the University of Chicago and completed his residency in internal medicine at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston. He is chief of the section of Hospital Medicine, director of the Center for Health and the Social Sci- ences, and chair of the Committee on Clinical and Translational Science at the University of Chicago, where he also directs the M.D./Ph.D. program in the social sciences. He is the recipient of numerous awards, including the NIH Medical Scientist Training Program Fellowship, the National Science Foundation Graduate Fellowship in Economics, the University of Chicago Searle Fellowship, the Lee Lusted Prize of the Society for Medical Deci- sion Making, the Health Care Research Award of the National Institute for Health Care Management, the Eugene Garfield Award from Research America, and the Robert Wood Johnson Generalist Physician Award. Dr. Meltzer is a research associate of the National Bureau of Economic Re- search, elected member of the American Society for Clinical Investiga- tion, and past president of the Society for Medical Decision Making. He has served on panels examining the future of Medicare for the National Academy of Social Insurance and the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), and U.S. organ allocation policy for the IOM. He recently served on an IOM panel examining the effectiveness of the U.S. drug safety system and currently serves on the HHS Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Healthy People 2020, which aims to establish health objectives for the U.S. population. Mary D. Naylor, Ph.D., RN, is Marian S. Ware professor in gerontology and director of the NewCourtland Center for Transitions and Health at the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing. Since 1990, she has led a multidisciplinary program of research designed to improve health and quality-of-life outcomes, decrease unnecessary hospitalizations, and reduce health care costs among chronically ill older adults. Dr. Naylor also is na- tional program director for the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation program

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412 BEST CARE AT LOWER COST Interdisciplinary Nursing Quality Research Initiative. She was elected to the IOM in 2005. She also is a member of the RAND Health Advisory Board and the National Quality Forum’s board of directors and chairs the board of the Long Term Quality Alliance. In 2010, Dr. Naylor was appointed to the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. Rita F. Redberg, M.D., M.Sc., has been professor of medicine and director of women’s cardiovascular services in the division of cardiology at the Uni- versity of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Medical Center since 1990. She is chief editor of the Archives of Internal Medicine and recently added the Less is More series to this journal to explore how more health care is not always better. Dr. Redberg earned her B.A. degree from Cornell University and her M.D. degree from University of Pennsylvania Medical School. She was awarded a Thouron Fellowship, which allowed her to complete an M.S. degree in health policy and administration from the London School of Economics in 1980. After completing her medical residency and cardi- ology fellowship at Columbia-Presbyterian Hospital, Dr. Redberg joined the faculty at Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York before moving to UCSF. She helped develop and was co-director of UCSF’s National Center of Excellence in Women’s Health, a designation awarded by the Office of Women’s Health in 1997. She has been the director of a successful annual American College of Cardiology (ACC) Extramural Program on Heart Disease in Women since 1997, and she started a national committee on Women in Cardiology for the American Heart Association (AHA) in 1994. Dr. Redberg has had a long-standing passion for politics and health policy and was a Robert Wood Johnson Health Policy Fellow. She serves on the California Technology Assessment Forum, is a member of the FDA Car- diovascular Device Expert Panel and the American College of Cardiology Quality Committee, and chaired the AHA Communications Committee. She also chaired the ACC/AHA Writing Committee on Performance Mea- sures for Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease. Dr. Redberg is a champion for physical activity and healthy eating and chairs the AHA’s Scientific Advisory Board for the Choose To Move program. Her main research interests have been the evidence base for new medical technology and how it relates to FDA approval and coverage by the Centers for Medi- care & Medicaid Services. She lectures nationally in the areas of diagnostic testing and screening for coronary artery disease, technology assessment, and preventive cardiology. Paul C. Tang, M.D., M.S., is an internist; vice president, chief innova- tion and technology officer at the Palo Alto Medical Foundation (PAMF); and consulting associate professor of medicine (biomedical informatics) at S ­ tanford University. Dr. Tang is vice chair of the federal Health Information

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APPENDIX D 413 Technology Policy Committee and chair of its Meaningful Use Work Group. Established under the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), the group advises the Department of Health and Human Services on policies related to health information technology. An elected member of the IOM, Dr. Tang chaired an IOM committee on patient safety that published reports in 2003-2004: Patient Safety: A New Standard for Care and Key Capabilities of an Electronic Health Record System. He is also a member of the IOM Board on Health Care Services. He chairs the National Quality Forum’s Health Information Technology Advisory Committee and is a member of the Forum’s Consensus Standards Approval Committee. Dr. Tang is a past chair of the board for the American Medical Informat- ics Asso­ iation. He is a member of the National Committee on Vital and c Health Statistics (NCVHS) and co-chair of the NCVHS Quality Subcom- mittee. He co-chairs the Measurement Implementation Strategy work group of the Quality Alliance Steering Committee and chairs the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s National Advisory Council for ProjectHealth ­ esign. D He has published numerous papers in medical informatics, especially re- lated to electronic health records, personal health records, and quality, and has delivered more than 280 invited presentations to national and international organizations and associations. Dr.  Tang is a fellow of the American College of Medical Informatics, the American College of Physi- cians, the College of Healthcare Information Management Executives, and the Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society. STUDY STAFF Robert Saunders, Ph.D., program officer and study director, received a B.S. in physics from the College of William and Mary in 2000 and a Ph.D. in physics from Duke University in 2006. His graduate research focused on quality measures of medical imaging systems, specifically evaluating breast imaging systems for their performance in breast cancer detection. After his graduate work, Dr. Saunders continued his research as a postdoctoral fellow in the Duke University Medical Center Department of Radiology, where he also taught public speaking courses in the medical physics depart- ment. In 2008, he was selected as Guenther Congressional Science Fellow, serving in the office of Rep. Rush Holt (New Jersey). Upon completing his fellowship, he was hired as a legislative assistant for Rep. Holt, deal- ing with health care reform, Medicare and Medicaid, small business, the Congressional Biomedical Research Caucus, and budget policy. In addition to these activities, he has served on the board of trustees of Duke Univer- sity and is a current member of the William and Mary Graduate Studies Advisory Board.

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414 BEST CARE AT LOWER COST Leigh Stuckhardt, J.D., program associate, received a B.S. in biological sciences with an additional major in philosophy from Carnegie Mellon University in 2007. In 2010, she received her J.D. with a concentration in health care law from the University of Pittsburgh School of Law, where her research focused on bioethics and issues of access to care, including a critique of the legal framework for the resolution of custody disputes over frozen embryos and analysis of the accessibility of mental health care following the passage of mental health parity and health care reform leg- islation. During law school, Ms. Stuckhardt also explored public health, health care law, and public policy issues firsthand through internships at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center and the Veterans Health Ad- ministration National Center for Ethics in Health Care and in the office of Rep. Anthony Weiner (New York). Julia Sanders, senior program assistant, graduated from Brown University in December 2010 with an Sc.B. in human biology. Her studies focused on human health and disease, culminating in a senior research project dedi- cated to ameliorating the current HIV/AIDS epidemic among Philadelphia’s African American population. Ms. Sanders supplemented her academic pursuits with an internship at the Rhode Island Health Center Association, where she researched, organized, and catalogued pending legislation related to health center operations and surveyed Rhode Island’s health centers re- garding available behavioral health services. In fall 2008, she took a leave of absence from Brown to work as a field organizer on President Obama’s campaign for office, later serving as a White House Intern for the Obama Administration in summer 2009. Brian W. Powers, senior program assistant, received a B.A. in history from Bowdoin College (magna cum laude), where he also concentrated in biol- ogy and chemistry. Within the field of U.S. history, Mr. Powers focused on Civil War–era African American history, undertaking a project on the Reconstruction era Ku Klux Klan as well as an honors thesis on the profes- sional experience of early black physicians. Mr. Powers’ work in history was supplemented by a sustained engagement in the natural sciences; he spent time in both chemistry and biology laboratories examining the effects of various neurotransmitters on cardiac function in the American lobster. Outside of the classroom, he performed outcomes research on colorectal cancer treatment during an internship at the Washington University School of Medicine and expanded his knowledge of the health care delivery system during time at Piedmont Health Services, a Community Health Center in Carrboro, North Carolina.

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APPENDIX D 415 Valerie Rohrbach, senior program assistant, graduated from the Pennsylva- nia State University in December 2009 as a Schreyer Honors Scholar with a bachelor’s degree in international politics. Her honors thesis examined the various methods by which countries address the human rights violations of their past. While working on her thesis, she interned at the Center for Stra- tegic and International Studies and the Woodrow Wilson Center in Wash- ington, DC. From January to August 2010, she interned with Congressman Patrick Murphy (Pennsylvania) and became well versed in the Patient Pro- tection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, recent reforms to Medicare, and other topics pertaining to national health policy. She then worked on the re-election campaign of Congressman Murphy as a field organizer. Claudia Grossmann, Ph.D., senior program officer, received a B.A. in biol- ogy with concentrations in molecular biology and microbiology from Wash- ington University in St. Louis in 2000 and a Ph.D. in biomedical sciences from the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) in 2007. At UCSF, her dissertation focused on the exploitation of the innate immune system by the Kaposi’s Sarcoma Associated Herpesvirus, a human virus that causes Kaposi’s sarcoma as well as other rare neoplastic, inflammatory diseases. During her graduate studies, Dr. Grossmann spent the summer of 2005 as a science and technology policy fellow at the National Academies, where she worked on the first congressionally mandated evaluation of the President’s Emergency Program for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). Before joining the Round- table on Value & Science-Driven Health Care, she served as program evalu- ator, directing evaluation and strategic planning efforts at the California Breast Cancer Research Program, the largest state-funded research effort in the nation. She remains committed to working toward the improvement of human health through the real-world application of research. Isabelle Von Kohorn, M.D., Ph.D., program officer, received an A.B. from the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princ- eton University in 1998 and her M.D. from the University of Pennsylvania in 2003. She completed her residency and chief residency in pediatrics at UCSF, where she received the UCSF Medical Center Exceptional Physician Award in 2007. She then moved to Yale University, where she finished her fellowship in neonatology in 2010 and received her Ph.D. in investigative medicine in 2011. Dr. Von Kohorn has used qualitative and epidemiologic research methods in her work. Her dissertation research focused on helping mothers who quit smoking avoid relapse after pregnancy. In her approach to health care and policy, she is committed to the fundamental right of every human being to enjoy the highest attainable standard of health.

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416 BEST CARE AT LOWER COST J. Michael McGinnis, M.D., M.P.P., executive director, is a physician and epidemiologist who lives and works in Washington, DC. Through his writing, government service, and work in philanthropy, he has been a long-time contributor to field leadership in health and medicine. Currently senior scholar and executive director of the IOM’s Roundtable on Value & Science-Driven Health Care, he previously served as founding director of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s (RWJF’s) Health Group, the World Health Organization’s Office for Health Reconstruction in Bosnia, the federal Office of Research Integrity, and the federal Office of Dis- ease Prevention and Health Promotion. In a tenure unusual for political and policy posts, Dr. McGinnis held continuous appointment through the Carter, Reagan, Bush, and Clinton Administrations at HHS, with policy responsibilities for disease prevention and health promotion (1977-1995). Programs and policies conceived and launched at his initiative include the Healthy People process for setting national health goals and objectives (1979-present), the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (1984-present), the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1980-present), the multilevel Public Health Functions Steering Group and the Ten Essential Services of Public Health (1994-present), the RWJF Active Living family of programs (2000-present), the RWJF Young Epidemiology Scholars Program (2001-present), the RWJF Health and Society Scholars Program (2002-present), and the current Learning Health System initiative of the IOM. Internationally, he served in Bosnia (1995-1996) as chair of the joint World Bank/European Commission Task Force on Reconstruction of the Health and Human Services Sector and in India (1974-1975) as epide- miologist and state director for the World Health Organization’s successful smallpox eradication program. Dr. McGinnis’s research has been widely cited and focuses on the multiple determinants of health and the rational allocation of social resources. He is an elected member of the IOM.