of Veterans Affairs’ (VA’s) National Center for Patient Safety (NCPS) and as the VA’s first chief patient safety officer from 1999 to 2010. As NCPS director, he was responsible for the development and implementation of techniques designed to reduce avoidable injuries and deaths among patients throughout the VA’s 154 medical centers and associated clinics and long-term care facilities. From 1980 to 1995, Dr. Bagian served as a NASA astronaut; he is a veteran of two space flights (STS-29 in 1989 and STS-40 in 1991). He took part in both the planning and provision of emergency medical and rescue support for the first six space shuttle flights. In 1986, Dr. Bagian served as an investigator for the Space Shuttle Challenger accident and as the astronaut on-scene adviser for the salvage operations of the Space Shuttle Challenger crew module; he was the individual who dove and made the positive identification of the Challenger crew module debris on the ocean floor. Subsequently, he was responsible for the development and implementation of the pressure suit used for crew escape and other crew survival and escape equipment used on Shuttle missions. He was also selected in 2003 to be chief flight surgeon and medical advisor for the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation Board. Dr. Bagian is an adjunct assistant professor of military and emergency medicine at the Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences at F. Edward Hebert School of Medicine and a clinical associate professor of preventive medicine and community health at the University of Texas Medical Branch. In addition, he is a colonel in the U.S. Air Force Reserve and serves on the Trauma and Injury Subcommittee of the Defense Health Board for the Department of Defense. He received a B.S. degree in mechanical engineering from Drexel University and his M.D. degree from Thomas Jefferson University. He is a diplomate of the American Board of Preventive Medicine, with a subspecialty in aerospace medicine. Dr. Bagian was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 2000 and to the IOM in 2003.

Anthony S. Bryk, Ed.D., is the ninth president of The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. He held the Spencer Chair in Organizational Studies in the School of Education and the Graduate School of Business at Stanford University from 2004 until assuming Carnegie’s presidency in September 2008. Previously, he held the Marshall Field IV Professor of Education post in the sociology department at the University of Chicago. There he founded the Center for Urban School Improvement, which supports reform efforts in the Chicago Public Schools. Dr. Bryk also founded the Consortium on Chicago School Research, which has produced a range of studies to advance and assess urban school reform. In addition, he has made contributions to the development of new statistical methods in educational research. At Carnegie, he is leading work on strengthening the research and development infrastructure for improving teaching and



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