We gratefully acknowledge the support of private contributors to the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine. The collective, private philanthropy of our members and friends helps to enhance our impact as advisors to the nation. Contributions to the National Academy of Engineering are recognized in the NAE Annual Report and The Bridge.

Einstein Society

In recognition of members and friends who have made lifetime contributions of $100,000 or more as personal gifts or as gifts facilitated by the donor through a donor advised fund, matching gift program, or family foundation as of December 31, 2011.


John Abelson

Bruce and Betty Alberts

Rose-Marie and Jack R. Anderson

Richard C. and Rita Atkinson

Norman R. Augustine

Francisco and Hana Ayala

Craig and Barbara Barrett

Thomas D.* and Janice Hood Barrow

H.H. and Eleanor F. Barschall*

Warren L. Batts

Arnold O. and Mabel M. Beckman*

Kenneth E. Behring

C. Gordon Bell

Elwyn and Jennifer Berlekamp

Diane and Norman Bernstein

Elkan R.*and Gail F. Blout

David G. Bradley

Donald L. Bren

Sydney Brenner

Malin Burnham

Fletcher* and Peg Byrom

Russell L. Carson

Ralph J. and Carol M. Cicerone

James McConnell Clark

Roman W. DeSanctis

Charles W. Duncan, Jr.

George and Maggie Eads

Harvey V. Fineberg and Mary E. Wilson

Eugene Garfield

William H. Gates III

T. H. Geballe

Penny and Bill George

William T.* and Catherine Morrison Golden

Cecil H. Green*

Barbara N. Grossman

Corbin Gwaltney

Margaret A. Hamburg and Peter F. Brown

William M. Haney III

Michael and Sheila Held

William R. and Rosemary B. Hewlett*

Jane Hirsh

M. Blakeman Ingle

Robert L. and Anne K. James

Kenneth A. Jonsson*

Yuet Wai and Alvera Kan

Fred Kavli

Frederick A. Klingenstein

William I. Koch

Daniel E. Koshland, Jr.*

Jill H. Kramer

Gerald and Doris Laubach

Whitney and Betty MacMillan

William W. McGuire

Burton and DeeDee McMurtry

Richard and Ronay Menschel

G. William* and Ariadna Miller

George P. Mitchell

Gordon and Betty Moore

Joe and Glenna Moore

David and Lindsay Morgenthaler

Philip and Sima Needleman

Oliver E. and Gerda K. Nelson*

Ralph S. O'Connor

Peter O'Donnell, Jr.

Jack S. Parker

Shela and Kumar Patel

Edward E. Penhoet

Percy Pollard

Robert A. Pritzker*

Dr. and Mrs. Allen E. Puckett

Simon Ramo

Carol and David Richards

George Rowe, Jr.

Jack W. and Valerie Rowe

William J. Rutter

Stephen and Anne Ryan

Jillian Sackler

Raymond and Beverly Sackler

Henry and Susan Samueli

Bernard G.* and Rhoda Sarnat

Leonard D. Schaeffer

Sara Lee and Axel Schupf

Shep* and Carol Ruth Shepherd

H.E. Simmons*

Herbert A. and Dorothea P. Simon*

Melvin I. Simon

Georges C. St. Laurent, Jr.

Edward C. Stone

Judy Swanson

Ted Turner

Leslie L. Vadasz

Roy and Diana Vagelos

Andrew and Erna Viterbi

John C. Whitehead

Alejandro Zaffaroni

Janet and Jerry Zucker

Names in bold print are NAS members.

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DONOR RECOGNITION We gratefully acknowledge the support of private contributors to the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine. The collective, private philanthropy of our members and friends helps to enhance our impact as advisors to the nation. Contributions to the National Academy of Engineering are recognized in the NAE Annual Report and The Bridge. Einstein Society In recognition of members and friends who have made lifetime contributions of $100,000 or more as personal gifts or as gifts facilitated by the donor through a donor advised fund, matching gift program, or family foundation as of December 31, 2011. Anonymous Carol and David Richards Ralph J. and Carol M. William I. Koch George Rowe, Jr. John Abelson Cicerone Daniel E. Koshland, Jr.* Bruce and Betty Alberts Jack W. and Valerie James McConnell Clark Jill H. Kramer Rose-Marie and Jack R. Rowe Roman W. DeSanctis Gerald and Doris Anderson Charles W. Duncan, Jr. Laubach William J. Rutter Richard C. and Rita Stephen and Anne Ryan George and Maggie Eads Whitney and Betty Jillian Sackler Harvey V. Fineberg and Atkinson MacMillan Raymond and Beverly Mary E. Wilson Norman R. Augustine William W. McGuire Francisco and Hana Sackler Eugene Garfield Burton and DeeDee Henry and Susan Samueli William H. Gates III Ayala McMurtry Richard and Ronay Craig and Barbara Barrett Bernard G.* and Rhoda T. H. Geballe Menschel Thomas D.* and Janice Sarnat Penny and Bill George G. William* and Ariadna Hood Barrow Leonard D. Schaeffer William T.* and Miller H.H. and Eleanor F. Sara Lee and Axel Schupf Catherine Morrison George P. Mitchell Shep* and Carol Ruth Barschall* Golden Gordon and Betty Moore Warren L. Batts Shepherd Cecil H. Green* Joe and Glenna Moore Arnold O. and Mabel M. Barbara N. Grossman H.E. Simmons* David and Lindsay Herbert A. and Dorothea Corbin Gwaltney Beckman* Morgenthaler Kenneth E. Behring P. Simon* Margaret A. Hamburg Philip and Sima and Peter F. Brown C. Gordon Bell Melvin I. Simon Elwyn and Jennifer Georges C. St. Laurent, Jr. William M. Haney III Needleman Oliver E. and Gerda K. Michael and Sheila Held Berlekamp Edward C. Stone Diane and Norman Judy Swanson William R. and Nelson* Ralph S. O'Connor Bernstein Ted Turner Rosemary B. Hewlett* Peter O'Donnell, Jr. Elkan R.*and Gail F. Leslie L. Vadasz Jane Hirsh Jack S. Parker Roy and Diana Vagelos M. Blakeman Ingle Blout Shela and Kumar Patel David G. Bradley Andrew and Erna Robert L. and Anne K. Edward E. Penhoet Donald L. Bren James Viterbi Percy Pollard John C. Whitehead Kenneth A. Jonsson* Sydney Brenner Robert A. Pritzker* Malin Burnham Alejandro Zaffaroni Yuet Wai and Alvera Dr. and Mrs. Allen E. Fletcher* and Peg Byrom Janet and Jerry Zucker Kan Russell L. Carson Fred Kavli Puckett Frederick A. Klingenstein Simon Ramo Names in bold print are NAS members. *Deceased 24

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The Elkan Blout Society of the National Academy of Sciences In recognition of members of the National Academy of Sciences who have made lifetime contributions of $20,000 to $99,999 as personal gifts or as gifts facilitated by the donor through a donor advised fund, matching gift program, or family foundation as of December 31, 2011. Andreas and Juana James F. Crow* Johanna Levelt Sengers Ronald L. Rivest Acrivos Pedro M. Cuatrecasas R. Duncan Luce Paul R. Schimmel Clarence R. Allen Paul M. Doty* Rudi* and Sonja Schmid Maclyn McCarty* Bishnu S. Atal Kenneth G.* and Renee Mildred S. Dresselhaus Brian P. Schmidt Hans and Verena John D. Baldeschwieler McKay Andrew M. Sessler William J. Baumol Fred and Tibby Frauenfelder Phillip A. Sharp Paul Berg Richard L. Garwin McLafferty Eric M. Shooter Kenneth I. Berns George Gloeckler Jane Menken Maxine F. Singer R. Stephen Berry David V. Goeddel James K. Mitchell Robert L. Sinsheimer Floyd E. Bloom William E. Gordon* John L. Moll* H. Guyford Stever* Lewis M. Branscomb John L. Hennessy Arno G. Motulsky Lubert Stryer Daniel Branton Norman H. Horowitz* Norman F. Ness F. William Studier Sarah and Dan Hrdy Harold Brown Jeremiah P. Ostriker Patrick Suppes Vicki L. Chandler Thomas Kailath Frank Press Martha Vaughan Purnell W. Choppin Roy Radner and A. Dale Kaiser Peter K. Vogt James S. and Elinor G. Morrel H. Cohen Charlotte Kuh Irving L. Weissman A. Langer Stirling A. Colgate Helen M. Ranney* Carl E. Wieman Barry and Bobbi Coller Bonnie Berger and Peter H. Raven Torsten N. Wiesel Ellis and Bettsy Cowling Frank Thomson Alexander Rich Jean D. Wilson Stephen H. Crandall Leighton Adam G. Riess Charles Yanofsky The IOM Society of the Institute of Medicine In recognition of members of the Institute of Medicine who have made lifetime contributions of $20,000 to $99,999 as personal gifts or as gifts facilitated by the donor through a donor advised fund, matching gift program, or family foundation as of December 31, 2011. Dyanne D. Affonso Robert M. Nerem Kenneth I. Shine Pedro M. Cuatrecasas Drew E. Altman William H. Danforth Quigg Newton* Eric M. Shooter John R. Ball Worth B. Daniels, Jr.* Gilbert S. Omenn Maxine F. Singer Jack D. Barchas June E. Osborn Richard L. Garwin Robert L. Sinsheimer James R. Gavin III Daniel W. Pettengill* Paul Berg Rosemary A. Stevens Bradford H. Gray Kenneth I. Berns Samuel O. Thier Helen M. Ranney* William N. Hubbard, Jr. Floyd E. Bloom Robert E. Tranquada Alexander Rich Richard B. Johnston, Jr. William C. Richardson Lewis M. Branscomb Peter K. Vogt Robert and Lillian Brent Margaret E. Mahoney* Henry W. Riecken Gail L. Warden Roger J. Bulger Maclyn McCarty* Frederick C. Robbins* Irving L. Weissman J. Michael McGinnis Doris E. Roberts* Purnell W. Choppin Torsten N. Wiesel Mary Sue Coleman Sheila A. Ryan C. Kern Wildenthal Arno G. Motulsky Barry and Bobbi Coller Van C. and Barbara Mow Charles A. Sanders Jean D. Wilson Colleen Conway-Welch Mary O. Mundinger Rudi* and Sonja Schmid Tadataka Yamada Woodrow A. Myers, Jr. James F. Crow* Warren M. Zapol Phillip A. Sharp Names in bold print are NAS members. *Deceased 25

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Heritage Society In recognition of members and friends who have contributed to or have made provisions for the future of the NAS or IOM through life income, bequest, and other estate and planned gifts as of December 31, 2011. Andreas and Juana Robert A. Derzon* Frederic L. Hoch* Henry W. Riecken Acrivos R. Duncan and Peter N. Devreotes Emanuel P. Rivers W.O. Baker* Carolyn Luce Paul M. Doty* Esther and Lewis Jack D. Barchas Mildred S. Dresselhaus Rowland Jane Menken H.H. and Eleanor F. Ernest L. Eliel* Sheila A. Ryan Stanley L. Miller* Barschall* Emanuel Epstein Arno G. Motulsky Paul R. Schimmel Stanley Baum Van C. and Barbara Mow William K. Estes* Stuart F. Schlossman Clyde J. Behney Scott E. Forbush* Rudi* and Sonja Schmid Guido Munch Paul Berg Mary O. Mundinger Norman H. Giles* Kenneth I. Shine Elkan R.*and Gail F. Philip and Sima George Gloeckler Herbert A. and Dorothea Blout Norman Hackerman* P. Simon* Needleman Chushiro* and Yoshiko Francis R. Boyd* Oliver E. and Gerda K. Robert L. Sinsheimer Daniel Branton Hayashi Nelson* Vesto Slipher* Robert and Lillian Brent Michael and Sheila Held H. Eugene Stanley Norman F. Ness Rosemary A. Stevens Rita K. Chow Thomas S. Inui Gilbert S. Omenn Richard B. Johnston, Jr. John A. Swets John A. Clements Gerald* and D. Walter Cohen Jerome Kagan Paul Talalay Mildred Pearson John Archibald* and Samuel Karlin* and Morrel H. Cohen Daniel Pettengill* Janette H. Wheeler Dorit Carmelli Stanley N. Cohen Nora K. Piore* Colleen Conway-Welch Norma M. Lang Maw-Kuen Wu Frank Press Ellis and Bettsy Cowling Charles Yanofsky Martin G. Larrabee* Simon Ramo Barbara J. Culliton Edithe J. Levit* Tilahun D. Yilma Alexander Rich Michael Zubkoff Henry* and Bryna David Martha L. Ludwig* and Frederic M. Richards* The Presidents’ Circle The Presidents’ Circle is an advisory and philanthropic support group of the academies. Donations by members of the Presidents’ Circle help promote awareness of science, technology and medicine in our society and a better understanding of the work of the academies. MEMBERS Anoymous (2) Meredith L. Dreiss Jill H. Kramer John S. Reed Drew E. Altman George C. Eads Davis L. Masten Jillian Sackler Richard N. Foster John F. McDonnell Axel Schupf Norman R. Augustine Donald R. Beall Jack M. Gill Charles H. McTier Sara Lee Schupf Malin Burnham Jane Hirsh David T. Morgenthaler Susan E. Siegel Nancy E. Conrad Charles O. Holliday, Jr. Darla Mueller Thomas C. Sutton Leslie B. Daniels Christopher Ireland Peter O'Donnell, Jr. Judy Swanson Charles R. Denham Irwin M. Jacobs Carole S. Young Frank Press Ralph C. Derrickson William I. Koch Robert Pritzker* James F. Young PRESIDENTS’ CIRCLE EMERITUS Jack R. Anderson E. Cabell Brand Dollie Cole Eugene Garfield, Ph.D. Ernest A. Bates Louis W. Cabot Howard E. Cox, Jr. Samuel F. Heffner, Jr. Berkley Bedell M. Blouke Carus Charles W. Duncan, Jr. M. Blakeman Ingle Diane Bernstein James McConnell Clark Raymond E. Galvin Robert L. James Names in bold print are NAS members. *Deceased 26

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Scott A. Jones Burton J. McMurtry Patricia S. Nettleship Deborah Szekely William F. Kieschnick Kamal K. Midha Jack S. Parker Robert H. Waterman Gerald D. Laubach George P. Mitchell Charles W. Robinson Margaret S. Wilson Richard J. Mahoney Joe F. Moore Neil R. Rolde Robert H. Malott Robert W. Morey, Jr. Georges C. St. Laurent, Jr. NAS Building Seat Naming Campaign NAS members were offered the chance to “take their seat in history” by making a $5,000 donation to the NAS in order to have their name, or that of a designee, placed on the arm of a seat in the restored NAS Building auditorium. The following donors have participated in the campaign to date. The number in parentheses indicates multiple donations of $5,000 by a single donor. Andreas Acrivos Mostafa A. El-Sayed J. Ross Macdonald Myriam P. Sarachik Shizuo Akira Mary K. Estes Douglas S. Massey Barbara A. Schaal Bruce Alberts Fred H. Gage Fred W. McLafferty Brian P. Schmidt (11) Bishnu S. Atal Gordon and Betty Moore Michael S. Gazzaniga Vern L. Schramm Francisco J. Ayala Foundation (4) (2) Nevin S. Scrimshaw Roger N. Beachy F. W. Gehring Cherry A. Murray Philip A. Sharp May R. Berenbaum Diane E. Griffin Philip Needleman Gerald I. Shulman Kenneth I. Berns Donald A. Gurnett Jerry E. Nelson Robert L. Sinsheimer Elwyn R. Berlekamp Sarah B. Hrdy Norman F. Ness Gabor A. Somorjai Elkan R. Blout Family Jisoon Ihm Maria Iandolo New Charles S. Spencer Harvey A. Itano Family Felix Boehm Sergei P. Novikov Karen B. Strier Gary G. Borisy Anthony A. James Neil D. Opdyke James M. Tiedje Lewis M. Branscomb V. Craig Jordan Jeremiah P. Ostriker Michael S. Turner John I. Brauman Thomas Kailath Charles S. Parmenter Cumrun Vafa Axel T. Brunger Charles F. Kennel Ronald L. Phillips Andrew J. Viterbi Malcolm H. Chisholm Tadamitsu Kishimoto E. Ward Plummer Thomas E. Wellems Ralph J. Cicerone Stephen C. Frank Press Owen N. Witte Michael T. Clegg Kowalczykowski Allen E. Puckett Tilahun D. Yilma Stanley N. Cohen John E. Kutzbach Simon Ramo Vernon R. Young* Rita R. Colwell Ho-Wang Lee Adam G. Riess (11) Jozef J. Zwislocki (2) R. James Cook Robert L. Letsinger John D. Roberts (2) Ellis B. Cowling Sharon R. Long (2) Gene E. Robinson James E. Dahlberg Akinlawon Mabogunje Linda J. Saif Names in bold print are NAS members. *Deceased 27

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Annual Giving Societies The National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine gratefully acknowledge the following members and friends who made charitable contributions during 2011. Catalyst Society In recognition of members and friends who contributed $10,000 or more in collective support to the NAS or IOM in 2011. We acknowledge those contributions made as personal gifts or as gifts facilitated by the donor through a donor advised fund, matching gift program, or family foundation. Bruce and Betty Christopher Ireland Philip and Sima Raymond and Beverly Richard B. Johnston, Jr. Alberts Sackler Needleman Rose-Marie and Jack R. Gerda K. Nelson* Pamela Samuelson Thomas Kailath Anderson Fred Kavli Peter O'Donnell, Jr. Leonard D. Schaeffer Malin Burnham William I. Koch Jeremiah P. Ostriker Brian P. Schmidt Gail and Roberto Jill H. Kramer Daniel W. Pettengill* Jack Schuler Canizares Bonnie Berger and Allen E. and Marilyn Phillip A. Sharp Russell L. Carson Kenneth I. Shine Frank Thomson Puckett Vicki L. Chandler Dorothea P. Simon* Leighton Simon Ramo Ralph J. and Carol M. Whitney and Betty Adam G. Riess Edward C. Stone MacMillan Cicerone Judy Swanson Arthur D. Riggs Harvey V. Fineberg and Davis Masten Samuel O. Thier Ronald L. Rivest Mary E. Wilson Mrs. G. William Miller George Rowe, Jr. Cumrun Vafa Penny and Bill George George P. Mitchell Marco A. Royo Andrew and Erna Jack M. Gill David and Lindsay William J. Rutter Viterbi Robert Glushko Morgenthaler Stephen and Anne Ryan Jozef J. Zwislocki Mark L. Green Rosette Society In recognition of members and friends who contributed between $5,000 and $9,999 in collective support to the NAS or IOM in 2011. We acknowledge those contributions made as personal gifts or as gifts facilitated by the donor through a donor advised fund, matching gift program, or family foundation. Anonymous Susan Fiske Edward E. Penhoet Robert L. Letsinger Shizuo Akira Michael S. Gazzaniga Akinlawon Mabogunje Frank Press Dr. and Mrs. J. Ross Bishnu S. Atal Gene and Julia F. W. Gehring Sibyl R. Golden Norman R. Augustine Macdonald Robinson Erik B. Goodwin William J. Baumol Douglas S. Massey Linda J. Saif James F. Mathis C. Gordon Bell Diane E. Griffin Myriam P. Sarachik Sarah and Dan Hrdy John F. McDonnell R. Byron Bird Vern L. Schramm J. Michael McGinnis Felix Boehm Sara Lee and Axel Tony Hunter Fred and Tibby Gary G. Borisy Schupf Jisoon Ihm Rose Itano Lewis M. Branscomb McLafferty Nevin S. Scrimshaw John I. and Sharon K. Anthony A. James Cherry A. Murray Robert L. Sinsheimer Kimberley Johnson Brauman Thomas Earl Starzl Jerry E. Nelson Axel T. Brunger Thomas C. Sutton V. Craig Jordan Norman F. Ness Charles F. Kennel and James E. Dahlberg Clara J. Szekely* Maria Iandolo New Leslie B. Daniels Ellen Lehman Virginia L. Trimble Sergei P. Novikov Charles W. Duncan, Jr. Tadamitsu Kishimoto Neil D. Opdyke Tilahun D. Yilma Charles and Patricia Mostafa A. El-Sayed Jim and Carole Young Stephen C. Emanuel Epstein Kowalczykowski Parmenter Names in bold print are NAS members. *Deceased 28

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Challenge Society In recognition of members and friends who contributed between $2,500 and $4,999 in collective support to the NAS and IOM in 2011. We acknowledge those contributions made as personal gifts or as gifts facilitated by the donor through a donor advised fund, matching gift program, or family foundation. Nancy Adler and Arnold Stanley N. Cohen Jeffrey C. Hall F. William Studier Milstein Barry and Bobbi Coller Richard V. Kadison Patrick Suppes Dyanne D. Affonso Ellis and Bettsy Cowling John and Wilma Peter K. Vogt John R. Ball Kassakian Gail L. Warden Roy Curtiss III William H. Danforth Johannes Weertman Floyd E. Bloom Bruce S. McEwen Delbert A. Fisher Julia Weertman Malcolm H. Chisholm John T. Potts, Jr. James R. Gavin III Purnell W. Choppin Andrew M. Sessler Jean D. Wilson James McConnell Clark Sid Gilman Larry J. Shapiro Owen N. Witte Fred E. Cohen Harold C. Sox, Jr. Tadataka Yamada M. M. Green Charter Society In recognition of members and friends who contributed between $1,000 and $2,499 in collective support to the NAS and IOM in 2011. We acknowledge those contributions made as personal gifts or as gifts facilitated by the donor through a donor advised fund, matching gift program, or family foundation. Francois M. Abboud Yu-Mei Y. Chao Howard L. Fields Edward A. Kravitz Andreas Acrivos Maarten J. Chrispeels Libo Fineberg Raju S. Kucherlapati Bobby R. Alford Francisco G. Cigarroa Hans and Verena Charlotte V. Kuh and Clarence R. Allen Ellen Wright Clayton Frauenfelder Roy V. Radner Porter W. Anderson Michael and Adriana Carl Frieden James S. and Elinor G. Nancy C. Andrews Clegg Edward A. Frieman A. Langer Edward M. Arnett Graham A. Colditz Joseph G. Gall Judith R. Lave Arthur K. Asbury Jack H. and Rita R. Norman F. Gant Joel L. Lebowitz Jack D. Barchas Colwell Neil Gehrels David M. Lee William G. Barsan Esther M. Conwell David T. Gibson Virginia Man-Yee Lee Gordon Baym and R. James Cook David V. Goeddel Anthony Leggett Cathrine Blom Dale R. Corson Gary L. Gottlieb I. Robert Lehman Roger N. Beachy Molly J. Coye Robert Graham Alan I. Leshner Edwin D. Becker Linda A. Cozzarelli Ronald L. Graham Rodolfo R. Llinas Paul Berg Stephen H. Crandall Bradford H. Gray Sharon R. Long Kenneth I. Berns Barbara J. Culliton Harry Barkus Gray Laszlo Lorand R. Stephen Berry Martha A. Darling M.R.C. Greenwood R. Duncan Luce Lutz Birnbaumer Philip D. Darney and Uta Ashley T. Haase George D. Lundberg Maureen Bisognano E. Landy Caroline Breese Hall Alexander R. Margulis Robert J. Blendon Ingrid Daubechies Philip C. Hanawalt Angela Barron McBride Barry R. Bloom Igor B. Dawid Marshall D. Hatch Donald S. McClure Jo Ivey Boufford Carl de Boor Jerris and Susan Hedges Marie C. McCormick Paul D. Boyer Catherine D. DeAngelis Jane E. Henney Frank B. McDonald E. Cabell Brand Hans G. Dehmelt Martha N. Hill William W. McGuire Murray F. Brennan Susan Dentzer Hedvig Hricak Emmanuel Mignot and Alan C. Brown Roman W. DeSanctis William N. Hubbard, Jr. Servane Briand Andrew Brown, Jr. Sue K. Donaldson Richard T. Johnson Ronald D. Miller Donald D. Brown R. Gordon Douglas, Jr. Jiri Jonas Arnold S. Milstein Harold and Colene Kathleen A. Dracup Sung Wan Kim Mortimer Mishkin Brown Bob and Ann Dynes David M. Kipnis James K. Mitchell Federico Capasso S. Walter Englander T. Kent Kirk Robert M. Nerem David R. Challoner Gary Felsenfeld Douglas E. Koshland Names in bold print are NAS members. *Deceased 29

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Eugene W. and Martha Robert E. Ricklefs Thomas A. Steitz Cun-Yu Wang T. Nester R.G. Hamish Robertson Rosemary A. Stevens A. Eugene Washington Elena and Stuart Anatol Roshko Lubert Stryer Warren M. Washington Nightingale William R. Roy Paul Talalay Robert H. Waterman Junko Nomura Vinod K. Sahney Charlotte and Morry Myron and Linda Masayasu Nomura* Marla E. Salmon Tanenbaum Weisfeldt Paul A. Offit Alan C. Sartorelli Craig B. Thompson Thomas E. Wellems and Gilbert S. Omenn Barbara Schaal and Joe Anita and George Marilyn I. Powell Walter A. Orenstein Leverich Thompson James A. Wells and June E. Osborn Randy Schekman James H. Thrall Carol Windsor Herbert Pardes William R. Schowalter John Q. Trojanowski Nancy S. Wexler Shela and Kumar Patel Donna E. Shalala Reed V. Tuckson James T. Willerson E. W. Plummer Charles J. Sherr Karl K. Turekian Toby Wolf Thomas D. Pollard Henry R. Shinefield Michael S. Turner Mary Woolley John Edward Porter Gerald I. Shulman Ellen M. Urbanski Charles Yanofsky Peter H. Raven Kerry Sieh Mary E. Vale Mark D. Zoback E. Albert Reece Maxine F. Singer Wylie Vale* Mary Lou Zoback Lester J. Reed William N. Spellacy George F. Vande Woude Huda Y. Zoghbi Maximilian F. Reiser William and Janet Stead Martha Vaughan Michael Zubkoff William C. Richardson Joan A. Steitz Bailus Walker, Jr. Other Individual Donors In recognition of members and friends who contributed up to $999 in collective support to the NAS and IOM in 2011. We acknowledge those contributions made as personal gifts or as gifts facilitated by the donor through a donor advised fund, matching gift program, or family foundation. Anonymous (10) Ann M. Arvin Caryl Ann M. Becerra Ricky Bluthenthal Herbert L. Abrams David A. Asch John C. Beck Thomas F. Boat Oded Abramsky Eric Ash Richard E. Behrman Allan G. Bogue Julius Adler Karen H. Ashe Charles L. Bennett Stuart Bondurant Stephen L. Adler Brian F. Atwater Joan Wennstrom Bennett Paul Bonin-Rodriquez Nancy Agular-Roca Tom P. Aufderheide Jeffrey L. Bennetzen J. T. Bonner Margarita Alegria Dennis A. Ausiello Christophe Benoist Richard J. Bonnie Yvette Alex-Assensoh K. Frank Austen Robert G. and Wendy S. Else Borst-Eilers Frances E. Allen W. Gerald Austen Bergman William H. Bowen Paula G. Allen-Meares Joan K. Austin Ruth L. Berkelman L. Thompson Bowles Richard B. Alley Daniel L. Azarnoff Bobbie A. Berkowitz Allan M. Brandt Myron Allukian, Jr. Howard L. Bailit Bruce J. Berne Paula A. Braveman Alex Alonso Robert W. Balluffi Jerome A. Berson Jeane Breinig Joel J. Alpert Jeffrey R. Balser Klaus Biemann Rachel and Henry Brem Lawrence K. Altman William A. Bardeen Grace Bigeleisen Patricia F. Brennan Stuart H. Altman Grigory I. Barenblatt Eula Bingham Norman E. Breslow Walter Alvarez Clyde F. Barker John D. Birkmeyer Winslow R. Briggs Hortensia d. l. A. Amaro Kathryn E. Barnard Linda S. Birnbaum William R. and Shirley Edward and Joan Anders Jeremiah A. Barondess Michelle H. Biros Brinkley Kenneth C. Anderson Michele Barry and Mark Mina J. Bissell W. F. Brinkman Ron J. Anderson Cullen Robert E. Black Ralph L. Brinster Wyatt W. Anderson Jacqueline K. Barton Jordan and Denise Norman H. Brooks Kathleen G. Andreoli Eugene A. Bauer Blackman Claire V. Broome John C. Angus Bruce J. Baum Allison Blakely Dorothy Brooten Luc E. Anselin Moungi G. Bawendi Dan G. Blazer Robert L. Bryant Karen H. Antman Zdenek P. Bazant R. Don Blim Bruce G. Buchanan Kenneth J. Arrow Peter Beak Clara D. Bloomfield Joseph A. Buckwalter *Deceased 30

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Kathleen Coen Douglas J. Futuyma Stephanie M. Curenton Gert Ehrlich Buckwalter Steven G. Gabbe James H. Curry David and Lucy Maurice B. Burg Fred H. Gage Susan J. Curry Eisenberg Raymond Buriel Mitchell H. Gail George Q. Daley Mickey S. Eisenberg Donald L. Burkholder Mary K. Gaillard Alexander Dalgarno Neil J. Elgee Anne and John Cahn E. John Gallagher Brent and Sharon Teo En Ming John Cairns, Jr. Rochel Gelman and Dalrymple Alain C. Enthoven Eugenio Calabi Charles R. Gallistel James E. Darnell, Jr. John J. Eppig Roberto R. Calderon Robert C. Gallo Jacqueline E. Darroch Robert M. Epstein Joseph A. Califano, Jr. Donald E. Ganem William H. Daughaday W. G. Ernst Allan Campbell Theodore G. Ganiats Seth J. Daugherty Gerhard Ertl R. Scott Campbell Elisabeth Gantt Ezra C. Davidson, Jr. Caswell A. Evans, Jr. M. Paul Capp Patricia A. Ganz Nancy E. Davidson William E. Evans Marian B. Carlson Lisetta M. Gardenier David R. Davies Alex S. Evers Robert L. Carneiro Atul Gawande Joanne Davila John H. Exton Marc A. Carrasco T. H. Geballe Karen Davis Claire M. Fagin Donald L. D. Caspar Walter J. Gehring Ciro de Quadros Stefan S. Fajans A. Welford Castleman, Jr. E. Peter Geiduschek Alan H. DeCherney Harold J. Fallon Webster K. Cavenee Pedro Gelabert Don U. Deere Edgardo T. Farinas Constance L. Cepko Martin Gellert Percy A. Deift Diana L. Farmer Martin Chalfie Apostolos Georgopoulos Johann Deisenhofer John W. Farquhar Leighton Chan John P. Geyman Patrick H. DeLeon Douglas T. Fearon R. Alta Charo Andrea M. Ghez Pierre Deligne Elsa and George Feher Ding-Shinn Chen Richard A. Gibbs Joel A. DeLisa Donna M. Ferriero Lincoln C. Chen Barbara A. Gilchrest Anthony J. DeMaria Christopher B. Field Herman Chernoff David Ginsburg David L. Denlinger Stanley Fields Alexei V. Filippenko Wilsonia Cherry Gary A. Glatzmaier Paul M. Densen Barbara J. Finlayson- Frank A. Chervenak Seymour and Brenda Derek A. Denton Pitts Zang-Hee Cho Glick Donald J. DePaolo Joseph J. Fins Rita K. Chow Shimon M. Glick Ronald A. DePinho Alfred G. Fischer Larry R. Churchill Stephen P. Goff David J. DeRosier Edmond H. Fischer George W. Clark Marthe R. Gold Peter B. Dervan Forrest and Dorothy Keith S. Clark Alfred L. Goldberg Stanley Deser Fischer David A. Clayton Irving H. Goldberg Robert J. Desnick Michael E. Fisher John A. Clements Lewis R. Goldfrank Don E. Detmer Charles D. Flagle Linda Hawes Clever Allen M. Goldman Robert C. DeVries Kent V. Flannery Jewel Plummer Cobb Jerry Gollub and Diane Luis A. Diaz Gregory L. Florant Michael D. Coe Nissen Nancy Wilson Dickey Lizabeth Fogel D. Walter Cohen Solomon W. Golomb William H. Dietz Daniel W. Foster Marshall H. Cohen Francisco Gonzalez- Salvatore DiMauro Henry W. Foster, Jr. Mary Sue Coleman Scarano Jack E. Dixon Catherine S. Fowler Stirling A. Colgate Ward H. Goodenough Michael V. Drake T. Kenneth Fowler Elizabeth F. Colson Leo A. Goodman Jeffrey M. Drazen James G. Fox Jack M. Colwill Richard M. Goody Robert D. Drennan Ellen Frank and David Roger D. Cone Enoch Gordis Deborah A. Driscoll Kupfer Robert E. Connick Lev P. Gor'kov Leonid and Lucy Joachim Frank Philip E. Converse Emil C. Gotschlich Dubinsky Joseph F. Fraumeni, Jr. Colleen Conway-Welch Roy W. Gould Floyd Dunn Stuart J. Freedman Joel D. Cooper Patricia A. Grady Thomas Dunne Wendy L. Freedman Max D. Cooper Paul A. Gray Mitzi L. Duxbury Dennis G. Fryback Lawrence Corey Philip P. Green Johanna T. Dwyer Victor R. Fuchs Charles S. Cox Venus Green James L. Dye Elena Fuentes-Afflick Gary Cox Laura H. Greene Adam M. Dziewonski Margaret T. Fuller Thomas C. Cox Deborah Greenspan Felton Earls and Maya Terry T. Fulmer F. Fleming Crim John S. Greenspan Carlson Inez Y. Fung Pedro M. Cuatrecasas Robert B. Griffiths Marian Wright Edelman *Deceased 31

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Paul F. Griner David M. Lawrence Joseph F. Hoffman Nancy Kass Ellen R. Gritz Robert S. Lawrence Paul F. Hoffman Jerome P. Kassirer Gerald N. Grob Wendy and Ted Tomas Hokfelt Michael B. Kastan Carol A. Gross Lawrence Frank Hole Marc A. Kastner Michael Grossman Peter D. Lax Heinrich D. Holland Robert W. Kates Fernando A. Guerra Mitchell A. Lazar Jimmie C. Holland Samuel L. Katz and Laurie M. Gunter Alexander Leaf Jonathan Holloway Catherine M. Wilfert Walter Guralnick Yuan T. Lee King K. Holmes Sidney Katz Bernard Guyer Susan E. Leeman Thomas F. Hornbein Francine R. Kaufman Jane I. Guyer Estella B. Leopold Kendall N. Houk Emmett B. Keeler Willy Haeberli and Johanna M. H. Levelt James S. House Joseph B. Keller Gabriele Haberland Sengers Roger Howe Art Kellermann W. A. Hagins Howard Leventhal Peter M. Howley K. I. Kellermann Beatrice H. Hahn Simon A. Levin Jennifer L. Howse James and Diana Kennett Robert N. Hall Roger J. Lewis Yvette M. Huet-Hudson Cynthia J. Kenyon Morris Halle Albert Libchaber James M. Hughes Nannerl O. Keohane Franklin D. Hamilton Gene E. Likens Thomas J. R. Hughes Robert O. Keohane Charles B. Hammond Olga F. Linares Rolf Huisgen Harry Kesten Qide Han Susan L. Lindquist John R. Huizenga Gurdev S. Khush Amir and Margit Hanna Richard S. Lindzen Barbara S. Hulka Laura L. Kiessling Richard W. Hanson Charles J. Lockwood Peter Barton Hutt Latonya Kilpatrick- Stephen W. Hargarten Jay Loeffler, M.D. Hugh E. Huxley Liverman Charlene A. Harrington Kathleen M. Lopez Richard and Fleur Hynes Linda M. Kilroy Stanley R. Hart Richard M. Losick Lisa I. Iezzoni Judith Kimble Ivan R. King Robert and Margot Bernard Lown Shinya Inoue Talmadge E. King, Jr. Haselkorn Jane Lubchenco Sharon K. Inouye Raynard S. Kington J. Woodland Hastings Jerold F. Lucey Thomas S. Inui James L. Kinsey James G. Haughton Ann C. Macaulay Kimishige Ishizaka Margaret G. Kivelson Richard J. Havel Susan E. Mackinnon Kurt J. Isselbacher Seymour J. Klebanoff Samuel Hawgood Ruth Macklin Scott Izu Herbert D. Kleber Maxine Hayes Peter and Marlene J. David Jackson Claude B. Klee Robert B. Haynes MacLeish James S. Jackson Charles R. Kleeman William R. Hazzard Margaret E. Mahoney* Richard J. Jackson Miles V. Klein Ruby P. Hearn Anthony P. Mahowald Patricia A. Jacobs Andrew H. Knoll D. S. Heeschen Donald C. Malins Arthur M. Jaffe Joanne Knopoff Donald R. Helinski Thomas F. and Rosalie Andre T. Jagendorf William S. Knowles Adam Heller Malone Richard Janeway Issac Kohane Maureen M. Henderson Floyd J. Malveaux David Japikse David Korn Ernest M. Henley Henri R. Manasse, Jr. Raymond Jeanloz Hans Kornberg Carol P. Herbert JoAnn E. Manson Christina A. Jimenez Bill and Ann Koros Arthur L. Herbst Vincent T. Marchesi John D. Joannopoulos Sara Dunham Kraskin Howard H. Hiatt Joyce Marcus Alan and Helgi Jobe and Stephen G. Kraskin Linda H. Barondess Howard Markel Roger A. Johns Richard D. Krugman Eve Higginbotham and James S. and Judith M. Timothy Johnson Mala Kustermann Frank Williams Marks Wolfgang K. Joklik Sydney Kustu John G. Hildebrand Paul A. Marks Ronald W. Jones John E. Kutzbach Maude E. Hines Robert R. Marshak Dr. and Mrs. Thomas H. Bruce M. Lake Kurt Hirschhorn Barry and Adrienne Jordan Robert A. Lamb Rochelle Hirschhorn Marshall Alexandra L. Joyner Lynn T. Landmesser John P. Hirth George M. Martin William A. Jury Neal F. Lane Helen H. Hobbs Paul C. Martin Michael M. Kaback Norma M. Lang Robin and Carol Manuel Martinez William G. Kaelin Amy L. Lara Hochstrasser Ricardo Martinez Larry R. Kaiser Joseph Larner Helmut Hofer Ida M. Martinson Wolfgang Kaiser Joyce C. Lashof Robert and Ann Bettie Sue S. Masters Roger D. Kamm Cato T. Laurencin Hoffelder John C. Mather Frederick S. Kaplan *Deceased 32

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Diane Mathis Thomas L. Schwenk Duncan B. Neuhauser Carolyn C. Cannuscio Pamela A. Matson Matthew P. Scott Norman and Georgine Veerabhadran Brian W. Matthews Susan C. Scrimshaw Neureiter Ramanathan Stephanie A. McAfee Dieter Seebach John E. Niederhuber Amelie G. Ramirez Elizabeth R. McAnarney George E. Seidel, Jr. Arthur W. Nienhuis Robert D. Reischauer Andrew McCall Terrence J. Sejnowski Louis Nirenberg Kenneth A. Ribet Charles A. McCallum Donald W. Seldin Ryoji Noyori Charles M. Rice III J. Andrew McCammon Iris R. Shannon Ruth S. Nussenzweig James R. Rice Harden M. McConnell Aaron J. Shatkin William L. Nyhan Alexander Rich Dusa McDuff Carla J. Shatz Godfrey P. Oakley Charles C. Richardson Christopher F. McKee Amy Shaw Charles P. O'Brien Frank M. Richter James O. McNamara Peter M. Shearer Seiji Ogawa Lynn M. Riddiford Marcia K. McNutt George F. Sheldon Tomoko Ohta Henry W. Riecken James C. McWilliams Melvyn Shochet Margaret E. O'Kane Barbara K. Rimer David Mechanic Stephen M. Shortell Olufunmilayo F. Olopade David L. Rimoin Afaf I. Meleis Edward H. Shortliffe Peter L. Olson Jasper Rine Jane Menken Ira Shoulson Gordon H. Orians Albert Rio, Jr. Richard A. Merrill Paul A. Sieving Joseph P. Ornato Neil J. Risch Michael Metelits Robert J. Silbey* Okezi Otovo John B. Robbins Henry Metzger Susan Silbey Larry E. Overman Eugene Roberts David E. Meyer Samuel C. Silverstein Lyman A. Page Barbara A. Romanowicz Elliot M. Meyerowitz Blanca G. Silvestrini Peter Palese Saul A. Rosenberg Cindy S. Miller David and Rachel Morton B. Panish Murray Rosenblatt Louis H. Miller Simons Arthur B. Pardee David Rosner John W. Milnor Angela Sims Robert G. Parr Diane Rowland Kiyoshi Mizuuchi Iakov G. Sinai John A. Parrish Esther and Lewis William C. Mobley Jeanne C. Sinkford George W. Parshall Rowland Janet D. Rowley William E. Moerner Jonathan S. Skinner Barbara H. Partee Edward Rubenstein Willow and Antonio David J. Skorton Ira H. Pastan Roberta L. Rudnick Monterrosa Harold C. Slavkin Robert E. Patricelli Abraham M. Rudolph Harold A. Mooney Carolyn W. Slayman Joseph Pedlosky Erkki Ruoslahti C. Bradley and Penny Darrin Smith Nicholas A. Peppas David W. Russell Moore James P. Smith Denis J. Pereira Gray Jeremy A. Sabloff Peter B. Moore V. Kerry Smith David H. Perlmutter David H. Sachs Cathleen Synge Robert R. Sokal Herbert B. Peterson William M. Sage Morawetz Louis Sokoloff Gordon H. Pettengill Martin R. Saiz M. Granger Morgan David H. Solomon Theodore L. Phillips Margarita Salas Michelle Morris Edward I. Solomon Chester M. Pierce Ismail A. Sallam Newton E. Morton Hugo F. Sonnenschein David and Suzy Pines Bruce J. Sams Harold L. Moses Gabriela Soto Laveaga Jeffrey L. Platt Leona D. Samson Marsha A. Moses Jeannette E. South-Paul Stanley A. Plotkin David T. Sandwell Wilson J. Moses Patricia G. Spear Stephen Polasky John W. Saunders, Jr. Arno G. Motulsky Charles S. Spencer Peter J. Polverini Douglas J. Scalapino John H. Moxley III Thomas C. Spencer Claire Pomeroy Peter T. Scardino Sezaki K. Mtingwa Allen M. Spiegel Alejandro Portes Howard K. Schachman Fitzhugh Mullan Allan C. Spradling Michael I. Posner Gottfried Schatz Walter H. Munk Joseph W. St. Geme III Leopold J. Pospisil Thomas C. Schelling Alicia H. Munnell Peter J. Stang Deborah E. Powell John A. Schellman Suzanne P. Murphy John R. Stanley William H. Press George W. Scherer Robert F. Murray, Jr. Donald F. Steiner Ronald F. Probstein Joseph E. Scherger Scott and Erlinda Murray Donald M. Steinwachs Dominick P. Purpura Gerold L. Schiebler Carl F. Nathan David J. Stevenson Thomas C. Quinn Richard M. Schoen David G. Nathan Bruce W. Stillman Howard K. Rabinowitz Gerald Schubert Eric J. Nestler Margaret G. Stineman Paul H. Rabinowitz Gertrud M. Schupbach Liz and Ben Neufeld Robert Straus Mitchell T. Rabkin John H. Schwarz Jo-Ann Neuhaus Brian L. Strom Daniel J. Rader and *Deceased 33

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Brian J. Stutz Donald L. Turcotte Gerald J. Wasserburg Ruby L. Wilson Moira Sucharov Arthur C. Upton Judith Wasserheit Elizabeth S. Wing Nathan Sullivan Seiya Uyeda Harry H. Wasserman Evelyn M. Witkin Norman Sutin Joan S. Valentine George D. Watkins Gerald N. Wogan Timothy M. Swager Ewine F. van Dishoeck Celeste Watkins-Hayes Barbara L. Wolfe Lynn R. Sykes K. E. van Holde Bruce Watson Ralph S. Wolfe Megan Sykes William A. Vega Patty Jo Watson Richard V. Wolfenden Herbert Tabor Abraham C. Verghese Ewald R. Weibel Lincoln Wolfenstein Mercedes Talley George Veronis Paul C. Weiler William B. Wood III Thomas N. Taylor Barbara Vickrey Steven Weinberg H. Boyd Woodruff Ula Y. Taylor Robert Violante Arthur Weiss Peter E. Wright Saul A. Teukolsky Peter Vitousek Herbert Weissbach Carl Wunsch Geoffrey Thomas Dan-Virgil Voiculescu Ralph Weissleder Eli Yablonovitch Alvin J. and Faye Edward H. Wagner Michael J. Welch Yasuyuki Yamada Thompson David B. Wake Zena Werb Richard Yarborough Elizabeth Thompson Salih J. Wakil Susan R. Wessler Beverly and Daniel Yett Gerald E. Thomson Larry Waldron John B. West Wayne M. Yokoyama David J. Thouless Edward E. Wallach Raymond P. White, Jr. Laurence R. Young William M. Tierney Christopher T. Walsh Alice S. Whittemore Rafia Zafar Lewis G. Tilney Rebecca Wanzo Eric F. Wieschaus Maria E. Zavala Glauco P. Tocchini- Diane W. Wara Jean Stein E-an Zen Valentini Kathleen E. Ward Torsten N. Wiesel Kathryn C. Zoon David Torres L. Emmerson Ward Catherine M. Wilfert Maria T. Zuber Russell E. Train Kenneth E. Warner Catharine C. Williams George D. Zuidema Robert E. Tranquada Donna Washington- Ellen D. Williams Bruno Zumino George H. Trilling Stokes and Andre T. Franklin Williams* John C. Tully Stokes Jewell D. Wilson Tributes In Honor of Kenneth I. Shine Jason Spyromilio, Christopher Stubbs, Nicholas B. Francisco G. Cigarroa Suntzeff, John Tonry Adam G. Riess and Brian P. Schmidt (20 separate In Honor of Harvey V. Fineberg tributes to the individuals named above) Libo Fineberg In Memory of Norman F. Ramsey In Honor of Francesca S. Gazzaniga Herman Chernoff Michael S. Gazzaniga In Memory of Harvey Akio Itano In Honor of Bruce Alberts, Gordon E. Moore, Rose Itano and Family Edward Penhoet, and Paul R. Gray Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (4 separate In Memory of Martin Ostriker tributes to the individuals named above) Jeremiah P. Ostriker In Honor of Peter Challis, Alejandro Clocchiatti, In Memory of Vernon R. Young Alan Diercks, Alexei V. Filippenko, Peter M. Nevin S. Scrimshaw Garnavich, Ronald Gililand, Mario Hamuy, Craig Hogan, Saurabh W. Jha, Robert P. Kirshner, Bruno In Memory of Jack Keil Wolf Leibundgut, José Maza, Mark M. Phillips, David J. Toby Wolf Reiss, Robert A. Schommer, R. Christopher Smith, Names in bold print are NAS members. *Deceased 34