Engineering, and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He received a B.S. in chemistry from the University of Michigan and a Ph.D. in chemical biology from the State University of New York at Stony Brook.

Kiyoko F. Aoki-Kinoshita received her B.S. and M.S. degrees in computer science from Northwestern University simultaneously in 1996. She received her doctorate in computer engineering from Northwestern in 1999. She was employed at BioDiscovery, Inc., in Los Angeles as a senior software engineer before moving to Kyoto, Japan, to work as a postdoctoral researcher at the Bioinformatics Center, Institute of Chemical Research, Kyoto University. There she developed various algorithmic and data-mining methods for analyzing glycan structure data accumulated in the KEGG GLYCAN database, which have been published in numerous journal papers. She then joined the Department of Bioinformatics in the Faculty of Engineering at Soka University in Tokyo and is now an associate professor of bioinformatics. She is also involved in several research projects pertaining to glycan functions based on their structure as well as recognition patterns of glycan structures by other proteins and even viruses. One of these projects is the development of a Web resource called RINGS (Resource for INformatics of Glycomes at Soka), which is intended to freely provide on the Internet many of the informatics algorithms and methods that have been published in the literature. These and other methods have been summarized in her book Glycome Informatics: Methods and Applications (CRC Press, 2009). Dr. Aoki-Kinoshita is a board member of the Japanese Society for Bioinformatics and the Japanese Society for Carbohydrate Research.

Brad Bendiak is an associate professor at the University of Colorado School of Medicine, where he teaches cell and developmental biology. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Cambridge in 1983. Dr. Bendiak’s laboratory focuses on understanding the enzymes that synthesize cell surface carbohydrates, the glycosyltransferases. In addition, characterization of the carbohydrate structures themselves and development of new methods for elucidation of these molecules are ongoing. This includes new methods in higher-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and fundamental studies in the fragmentation of carbohydrate molecules by mass spectrometry, with the overall goal being to assign the detailed structures of these complex molecules unambiguously. His laboratory is also interested in a series of glycosyltransferases involved in synthesis and branching of novel core structures of glycoprotein oligosaccharides and in better understanding the control of expression and the role of these enzymes in different tissues. For structural elu-



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