Complex glycan: A glycan containing more than one type of monosaccharide.

Deoxy sugar: A monosaccharide in which a hydroxyl group is replaced by a hydrogen atom.

Epimers: Two isomeric monosaccharides differing only in the configuration of a single chiral carbon. For example, mannose is the C-2 epimer of glucose.

Furanose: Five-membered (four carbons and one oxygen; i.e., an oxygen heterocycle) ring form of a monosaccharide named after the structural similarity to the compound furan.

Galectins: S-type (sulfhydryl-dependent) β-galactoside-binding lectins, usually occurring in a soluble form, expressed by a wide variety of animal cell types and distinguishable by the amino acid sequence of their carbohydrate recognition domains.

Genome: The complete genetic sequence of one set of chromosomes.

Glycan: Generic term for any sugar or assembly of sugars, in free form or attached to another molecule, used interchangeably in this report with saccharide or carbohydrate.

Glycan array: A collection of glycans attached to a surface in a spatially addressed manner.

Glycan-binding proteins: Proteins that recognize and bind to specific glycans and mediate their biological function.

Glycobiology: Study of the structure, chemistry, biosynthesis, and biological functions of glycans and their derivatives.

Glycocalyx: The cell coat consisting of glycans and glycoconjugates surrounding animal cells that is seen as an electron-dense layer by electron microscopy.

Glycoconjugate: A molecule in which one or more glycan units are covalently linked to a noncarbohydrate entity.

Glycoforms: Different molecular forms of a glycoprotein, resulting from variable glycan structure and/or glycan attachment site occupancy.

Glycogen: A polysaccharide comprising α1–4- and α1–6-linked glucose residues that functions in short-term energy storage in animals; sometimes referred to as animal starch.

Glycolipid: General term denoting a molecule containing a glycan linked to a lipid aglycone. In higher organisms most glycolipids are glycosphingolipids, but glycoglycerolipids and other types exist.

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement