TABLE D.1 Types of Natural Hazards Recorded by International Dataset
|CRED EM-DAT||Dartmouth Flood Observatory Database||GAR||GLIDE|
|Drought||Dam release + heavy rain||Drought||Drought|
|Earthquake (seismic activity)||Dam/Levy, break or release||Cold wave||Cold wave|
|Extreme temperature||Torrential rain||Earthquake||Epidemic|
|Flood||Tropical cyclone||Fire||Extreme temperature|
|Insect infestation||Tropical storm||Flood||Flash flood|
|Mass movement Dry||Rain and snowmelt||Forest fire||Flood|
|Mass movement Wet||Snowmelt||Frost||Heat wave|
|Landslide||Severe local storm|
|Liquefaction||SLIDE (use LS/ AV/MS instead)|
|wave/surge(use TS/SS instead)|
numbers are used by disaster-related organizations worldwide (example.g., CRED). A strength of the GLIDE system is that it differentiates among many types of hazards (Table D.1). One weakness is that it does not provide consistent comments on damages or separate losses of life, livelihoods, and property into separate data fields. The GLIDE data do not indicate increasing disaster frequency over the past decade; however, they do support other observations about the relative high frequency of flood and storm events.
Munich RE NATHAN Database
The Munich RE NATHAN Database is a proprietary database used for insurance, investment and strategic planning purposes.5 Its historical archive includes 28,000 datasets with increasingly comprehensive coverage after 1980. Its annual map of losses in 2010 indicates that a large proportion of hazards in South Asia have been meteorological or hydrological events. Although some NATHAN data are publically accessible, some detailed NATHAN data are not publically available and were therefore not used extensively in this report.
The U.N. Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs maintains a comprehensive portal for humanitarian concerns worldwide called ReliefWeb.6 As of August 19, 2011, Afghanistan had the largest number of “Updates” in the region. Most of Afghanistan’s entries are conflict related, for which it ranks first worldwide with 27,231 Updates, followed by Sudan and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Pakistan also has a high number of updates for both natural disasters and complex emergencies. In 2010, ReliefWeb reported the following number of humanitarian entries for the countries in the study area: Afghanistan, 27,674; Bangladesh, 4,838; Bhutan, 159; India, 10,201; Nepal, 6,089; and Pakistan, 17,120.
Dartmouth Flood Observatory Database and
Flood Remote Sensing Databases
The Dartmouth Flood Observatory Database,7 now hosted at the University of Colorado, Boulder, has compiled and mapped major flood events worldwide since 1985. Other agency websites provide detailed remotely sensed flood imagery, for example, the Global Flood Detection System,8 the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Operational Significant Event Imagery,9 the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission or TRMM,10 the CREST,11 site, and others. As these