data and technologies expand, it will be important to make comparable investments in integrative field research on the human dimensions of flood hazards (Guha-Sapir et al., 2011).
ORGANIZATIONS AND INTERNATIONAL
Regional intergovernmental organizations and international nongovernmental organizations that focus on natural hazards and disaster reduction in the South Asia region offer different perspectives on, and approaches to, natural hazards. Although not intended as an exhaustive list, the following provides a summary of organizations of note along with information about their focus:
• Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC).12 This regional organization in Bangkok serves most countries in South Asia except, it appears, Afghanistan and Bhutan. The center offers professional training and a clearinghouse of information in association with the Asian Institute of Technology in Bangkok.
• Asian Disaster Reduction and Response Network.13 The Asian Disaster Reduction and Response Network (ADRRN) out of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, is a consortium of 34 NGOs dedicated to humanitarian assistance in the Asia-Pacific region, organized to support regional networking and information sharing.
• Asian Ministerial Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction. This organization convenes biennial meetings of government ministers in disaster agencies. The most recent meeting took place in Seoul, Korea, in 2010. It focused on disaster risk reduction through climate change adaptation,14 and it was followed by a biennial conference in Colombo, Sri Lanka.15
• Duryog Nivaran.16 This regional nongovernmental organization based in Colombo, Sri Lanka, is devoted to decentralized disaster risk reduction, which bears comparison with ADPC’s community-based approach to disaster risk reduction.
• Integrated Water and Hazard Management Pro grammes.17 The International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) is a regional knowledge development and learning center based in Kathmandu, Nepal. The center supports three major projects on mountain hydroclimate hazards in the Himalayan region:
° Disaster Preparedness in the Himalayas Program is the broadest initiative in the field.
° The new INDUS Project for Capacity Building for Improved Monitoring of Snow, Ice and Water Resources brings together scientists from Indus Basin countries for joint discussions and possible collaboration.
° The HKH-HYCOS Project established a Regional Flood Information System in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan area.
• SAARC—Disaster Knowledge Network.18 SAARC is the main regional intergovernmental organization (IGO) for South Asia. It has added disaster reduction to its shared concerns, creating a regional center in New Delhi that networks members and agencies in each country. It has created a knowledge clearinghouse that includes country profiles with links to policies, institutions, and resources.
• U.N. ESCAP19 The U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) in Bangkok has a Committee on Disaster Risk Reduction that was established in 2009 and is serviced by a Committee on Information and Communications Technology.
NATIONAL DISASTER AGENCIES
Nations in the HKH region have disaster agencies and databases that take a variety of forms and include different types of information, as discussed here. This is not intended as an exhaustive list; rather, it is included to provide additional context when considering the response of the region to natural and hydroclimatic hazards.