changing environmental and social conditions will be unavailable. Monitoring and research will advance understanding of both the physical and social systems in the region, and identify the various options available to respond to change in the face of uncertainty.

Theme 4: In the face of this uncertainty, the most compelling need is to improve water management and hazards mitigation systems. Existing patterns of water use and water management need improvement. Some progress has been made in improved assessments in the recent past. Going forward, improved implementation of lessons from these assessments in water policies and programs will be necessary. Options for adapting to climate change and hydroclimatic hazards are discussed in greater detail in the report. However, the people most likely to be affected by changing water security in the region are the rural and urban poor who have the least capacity to adapt to changing environmental and social conditions and hazards. Management of groundwater and demand-side management are among the areas where improvements can be made.

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