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Appendix C Indicators Identified By Individual Panelists Preschool Stage W. Steven Barnett 1. An index of children’s prenatal exposure to hazards (e.g., tobacco, alcohol, drugs, maternal stress) 2. An index of learning and development collected at age 3 and kindergarten entry 3. An index of the home learning environment or experiences 4. The percentage of young children receiving early care and education outside the home by age 5. An index or measure of the quality of preschool programs Margaret Burchinal 1. An indicator of the quality of interactions in child-care programs: the extent to which interactions between caregivers and children are warm, responsive, and linguistically rich. 2. An indicator of the quality and appropriateness of curricula in child-care programs: that curricula have the appropriate scope and sequence and incorporate methods for monitoring progress. 3. An indicator of the quality of teaching practices in child-care programs: that programs use intensive coaching linked to the curriculum or to promote evidence-based teaching practices. 4. An indicator of readiness: that children acquire the language, academic, attention, and social skills to be ready for school. Susan Sheridan 1. An index of the number/percent of families/households that provide attached parent- child relationships (e.g., display of affection, physical proximity, contingent positive reinforcement). 2. An index of the percent of families that provide enriching and stimulating home environments. 3. Percentage of families with multiple risk factors (such as, poverty, single adult household, household is non-English speaking in a predominantly English-speaking environment/community, parent(s) have less than a high school education, teen parent(s), parental mental illness). 4. A measure of access to support systems, such as the number of children/families receiving health, mental health, and social services. 87
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KEY NATIONAL EDUCATION INDICATORS 5. Percentage of parents who are connected to or partner with early childhood providers via interactions that are planned and collaborative. Deborah Vandell 1. An index of the type of child care available for children ages 0-3 and 3-6 2. An assessment of the quality of care provided to children in child care program 3. An assessment of learning readiness administered in kindergarten 4. Percentage of children (birth to age 5) living in poverty, especially living in persistent poverty during this period K-12 Elaine Allensworth 1. Attendance in school by age 2. College readiness levels by age/grade 3. A measure of safe and orderly school climate 4. A measure of school culture (supportiveness) for college and careers 5. A measure of collaborative school community that focuses on student learning Mark Dynarski 1. Parent satisfaction with education 2. K-12 education spending as a share of GDP 3. K-12 education spending per student 4. Teacher student ratio Brian Gill 1. Proportion of teachers whose evaluations distinguish them from a basic standard, using measures of their contributions to student achievement and their professional practice. 2. Percentage of K-12 education funding spent on research and development 3. Voter registration rate of 18-21 year olds Robert Pianta 1. Teachers with mastery-level and current knowledge of content they are teaching 2. Teachers with mastery-level and contemporary knowledge of child and adolescent development 3. Curricula with demonstrated evidence of associations with student learning 4. Teacher-student interactions that demonstrate high levels and qualities of involvement, stimulation, and expansion of thinking and cognition, and sensitivity to students’ perspectives, individual experiences, and backgrounds 5. Teacher-student interactions that foster relationships with and among students 6. Opportunities to learn that challenge thinking 88
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Rob Warren 1. Command of core content (NAEP scores) 2. Grade retention rates through 8th grade 3. High school completion rates 4. A measure of opportunity to learn 5. A measure of college readiness Higher Education Kevin Dougherty 1. Degree completion, particularly for community colleges 2. Measures of education progression (toward degree completion) 3. Job placement and earnings 4. Student learning 5. Societal outcomes, such as reduced income and wealth inequality 6. Student knowledge of the college access and success process Laura Perna 1. Institutional completion/graduation rates 2. Educational attainment (10 years after first enrolled) 3. Affordability 4. Magnitude and manageability of debt 5. Economic benefits to individuals (employment rates and salaries) 6. College readiness and preparation 7. A measure of equity (distributions of students by key demographic characteristics across different types of postsecondary education institutions and higher education outcomes Lashawn Richburg-Hayes 1. The proportion of first-time, first-year students that are college-ready at matriculation 2. The proportion of students who passed the developmental course requirements within three semesters, if not college-ready at matriculation 3. The cumulative total of degree-applicable credits earned, possibly relative to a benchmark of 60 credits (the average credits required for an associate’s degree) Patrick Terenzini 1. Higher-order cognitive skills (critical thinking, problem solving, synthesizing and evaluating evidence) 2. Occupational competence in some field 3. Civic awareness and responsibility 4. Global and inter-cultural competence 5. Moral reasoning 89
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KEY NATIONAL EDUCATION INDICATORS Bill Tierney 1. Ability to overcome remedial needs 2. Ability to retain and graduate students 3. Ability to provide skills necessary for successful careers 4. Ability to place students in jobs comparable to their education/training 5. Debt incurred is manageable in relationship to income Other Postsecondary Education and Training Judy Alamprese 1. How literate are adults in America? 2. Do adults who re-enter education after leaving high school without a diploma earn postsecondary credentials? 3. What are the civic and social outcomes of adult education? 4. What proportion of national wealth is spent on adult education? 5. How prepared are adult education instructors to facilitate adults’ achievement of their education and learning goals? David Stern 1. What types of on-the-job training are provided, including classroom instruction, work practices, and on-line resources 2. Extent to which employed individuals participate in on-the-job training 3. Measures of skill shortages in new or changing occupations/industries Marshall Smith 1. Do U.S. employers promote and create learning environments within their organization? Do they support innovation? Do employees have collective learning plans? 2. What percentage of the adult population believes that they know how to learn and that they are motivated to exercise this skill? 3. Is there a healthy environment of nonschool institutions and services that support deliberate learning in areas associated with occupational interests? 4. Are people taking advantage of the sets of opportunities made available to them? Lifelong, Informal Learning Joseph Kahne 1. Political engagement 2. Civic engagement 3. Learning through engagement with civic and political information through media 4. Learning through engagement with diverse views on civic and political issues 5. Civic learning opportunities 90
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Don Roberts 1. Measure of access, such as a measure of household spending/ownership of various media 2. Measure of exposure to media and types of media children are exposed to 3. Some measure of impact/influence, such as a measure of the relationship between use of various media platforms and critical-thinking/problem-solving skills Elizabeth Stage 1. Participation in cultural activities, such as going to museums, exhibits, etc. 2. Engagement in cultural activities 91
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