PAUL D. NIELSEN, Chair, is the CEO and director of Carnegie Mellon University’s Software Engineering Institute. Prior to this, Dr. Nielsen served in the U.S. Air Force (USAF), retiring as a Major General after 32 years of distinguished service. His responsibilities included Commander of the Air Force Research Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (AFB); Vice Commander of the Aeronautical Systems Center; Air Force technology executive officer; and assignments at the Secretary of the Air Force’s Office of Special Projects, the Department of Energy’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Cheyenne Mountain Operations Center, and North American Aerospace Defense Command. In 2004, Dr. Nielsen became a fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). He served as the AIAA president from 2007 to 2008 and was a member of the AIAA board of directors. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) and a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). He previously served on the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board and is a member of the board of directors for the Hertz Foundation. Dr. Nielsen earned a B.S. in physics and mathematics from the U.S. Air Force Academy, an M.S. in applied science from the University of California, Davis, and an M.B.A. from the University of New Mexico. He received a Ph.D. in plasma physics from the University of California, Davis. He has previously served on the NRC Committee on the Rationale and Goals of the U.S. Civil Space Program.
KYLE T. ALFRIEND, Vice Chair, is the TEES Distinguished Research Chair and Professor in the Department of Aerospace Engineering at Texas A&M University. His areas of research include astrodynamics, satellite altitude dynamics and control, space debris, space surveillance, and space systems engineering. Dr. Alfriend has received the American Association for the Advancement of Science International Scientific Cooperation Award, the AIAA Mechanics and Control of Flight Award, and the American Astronautical Society Dirk Brouwer Award. He is a member of the NAE and a fellow of the AIAA and the American Astronautical Society. Dr. Alfriend earned his M.S. in applied mechanics from Stanford University and his Ph.D. in engineering mechanics from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. He has served as a member of the NRC’s Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, the Committee on the Future of the U.S. Aerospace Infrastructure and Aerospace Engineering Disciplines to Meet the Needs of the Air Force and the Department of Defense, and the Committee on the Assessment of NASA’s Orbital Debris Programs.
Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page 63
A Committee and Staff Biographical Information PAUL D. NIELSEN, Chair, is the CEO and director of Carnegie Mellon University’s Software Engineering Insti - tute. Prior to this, Dr. Nielsen served in the U.S. Air Force (USAF), retiring as a Major General after 32 years of distinguished service. His responsibilities included Commander of the Air Force Research Laboratory at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base (AFB); Vice Commander of the Aeronautical Systems Center; Air Force technology executive officer; and assignments at the Secretary of the Air Force’s Office of Special Projects, the Department of Energy’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Cheyenne Mountain Operations Center, and North American Aerospace Defense Command. In 2004, Dr. Nielsen became a fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). He served as the AIAA president from 2007 to 2008 and was a member of the AIAA board of directors. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineer- ing (NAE) and a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). He previously served on the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board and is a member of the board of directors for the Hertz Foundation. Dr. Nielsen earned a B.S. in physics and mathematics from the U.S. Air Force Academy, an M.S. in applied science from the University of California, Davis, and an M.B.A. from the University of New Mexico. He received a Ph.D. in plasma physics from the University of California, Davis. He has previously served on the NRC Committee on the Rationale and Goals of the U.S. Civil Space Program. KYLE T. ALFRIEND, Vice Chair, is the TEES Distinguished Research Chair and Professor in the Department of Aerospace Engineering at Texas A&M University. His areas of research include astrodynamics, satellite altitude dynamics and control, space debris, space surveillance, and space systems engineering. Dr. Alfriend has received the American Association for the Advancement of Science International Scientific Cooperation Award, the AIAA Mechanics and Control of Flight Award, and the American Astronautical Society Dirk Brouwer Award. He is a member of the NAE and a fellow of the AIAA and the American Astronautical Society. Dr. Alfriend earned his M.S. in applied mechanics from Stanford University and his Ph.D. in engineering mechanics from Virginia Poly - technic Institute and State University. He has served as a member of the NRC’s Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, the Committee on the Future of the U.S. Aerospace Infrastructure and Aerospace Engineering Disciplines to Meet the Needs of the Air Force and the Department of Defense, and the Committee on the Assessment of NASA’s Orbital Debris Programs. 63
OCR for page 63
64 CONTINUING KEPLER’S QUEST—ASSESSING AIR FORCE SPACE COMMAND’S ASTRODYNAMICS STANDARDS MICHAEL J. BLOOMFIELD is vice president and general manager of Oceaneering Space Systems at Oceaneering International, Inc. Prior to joining Oceaneering, he was vice president for Houston operations at Alliant Techsys - tems, Inc. (ATK). Mr. Bloomfield is a veteran astronaut of three space shuttle flights. Selected as a NASA astronaut in 1994, he served as pilot on STS-86 and STS-97 and as commander of STS-110. While at NASA he also held important management positions with the astronaut office, including chief instructor astronaut, chief of astronaut safety, and deputy director of flight crew operations. Additionally, Mr. Bloomfield was director of shuttle opera - tions and chief of the shuttle branch. He also served as deputy director of the Flight Crew Operations Directorate before leaving NASA in 2007 to join ATK. Mr. Bloomfield received his B.S. in mechanical engineering from the U.S. Air Force Academy and his M.S. in engineering management from Old Dominion University. He served on the Committee on the Assessment of NASA’s Orbital Debris Programs. JOHN T. EMMERT is a research physicist in the Geospace Science and Technology Branch within the Space Science Division at the Naval Research Laboratory. Dr. Emmert’s research focuses on the climate and dynamics of the thermosphere, using a variety of extensive geophysical databases and models. He recently developed a 40-year database of thermospheric densities derived from orbital tracking of 5,000 near-Earth space objects. He has employed this data set for continuing studies of long-term upper atmospheric climate change, for analysis of the thermospheric response to solar activity variations, and for validation of thermospheric densities inferred from far-ultraviolet remote sensing. He has also studied extensively the effect of geospace storms on global ther- mospheric dynamics and has developed a global empirical model of geomagnetic storm effects on thermospheric winds. Dr. Emmert received a B.S. in astronomy from the University of Arizona and a Ph.D. in physics from Utah State University. YANPING GUO is a supervisor of the Mission Design Section in the Space Department of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, where she is also a member of the principal professional staff and started her career as a postdoctoral fellow. Dr. Guo has developed mission designs for several interplanetary missions and is the mission design lead of NASA’s New Horizons mission to Pluto and the Kuiper belt and is the mission design and navigation manager of NASA’s Solar Probe Plus mission. Dr. Guo was the mission design lead for several missions, including NASA’s decadal study of Uranus Orbiter/Probe mission, the Mercury Lander mission, the MERLIN Discovery mission proposal, the Mars Scout mission proposal “The Great Escape,” NASA’s Solar Sentinels mission study, and a proposed Aladdin mission to return samples from Mars’ moons Phobos and Deimos. Dr. Guo served on review panels for NASA’s MESSENGER and MAVEN missions. She was the lead for science planning and operation of NASA’s NEAR mission and the principal investigator of the Interplanetary Autonomous Navigation project. Asteroid 28513 was named “Guo” by the International Astronomical Union in 2004 in honor of her contribution to the exploration of the solar system. Dr. Guo is currently the chair of the AIAA Astrodynamics Technical Committee. Dr. Guo earned a Ph.D. in physics from the Catholic University of America. TIMOTHY D. MACLAY is the founder and CEO of the consulting firm Celestial Insight, Inc., which offers services in the areas of flight dynamics, satellite operations, and space technology development. Dr. Maclay’s principal contract is for ongoing support to the low-Earth-orbit constellation owner/operator, Orbcomm, Inc. Previously, he led the systems engineering, flight dynamics, and network service assurance groups at Orbcomm, supporting the successful deployment of 41 satellites via six launch campaigns. His research interests include orbital debris modeling and space situational awareness and the development of nontraditional means of lowering the cost of access to space through the use of hosted payloads and commercially provided space data services. Dr. Maclay earned his Ph.D. in aerospace engineering sciences from the University of Colorado, Boulder. He served as the Orbital Debris Modeling Subcommittee chair on the NASA Engineering and Safety Center’s Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Risk Analysis for NASA’s Orion Program. JAMES G. MILLER joined Omitron, Inc., as a senior aerospace engineer in February 2012. During the previous 25 years he was a principal engineer at the MITRE Corporation, working on missile defense and space surveillance,
OCR for page 63
65 APPENDIX A with a particular interest in astrodynamics. He worked on the Strategic Defense Initiative with high-fidelity com - puter models of strategic defense systems, including sensors, tracking, and command and control of interceptors. He worked on the acquisition of the Space Defense Operations Center system for the Air Force Electronic Systems Center, which now resides at the Joint Space Operations Center at Vandenberg Air Force Base. He developed the Special Perturbations Tasker that tasks the Space Surveillance Network for satellite observations to maintain the high-accuracy special perturbations satellite catalog. He also developed a multiple hypothesis tracking prototype that associates tracks in a multi-target, multi-sensor environment to handle satellite breakups and satellite prox - imity operations. Before working at MITRE, Dr. Miller was a radar systems analyst for 5 years with Dynetics and Teledyne Brown Engineering and spent 10 years in academia teaching applied mathematics and physics and doing research in general relativity. He has published numerous papers on general relativity, space surveillance, and astrodynamics. Dr. Miller earned a B.A. in mathematics at the University of California, Berkeley, and a Ph.D. in applied mathematics at Princeton University. ROBERT F. MORRIS is a member of the technical staff at the Aerospace Corporation. He is also a retired civil - ian official from Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) in Colorado Springs. At AFSPC Mr. Morris was head of the Space Control Branch in the Directorate of Analysis. Over his 44 years of space operations experience, he performed a wide variety of orbital trajectory analysis and led the design, development, and testing of numerous astrodynamic algorithms for use in AFSPC operations. He personally developed the first pattern-recognition-based algorithm used for operational automated orbital maneuver detection. He also played an integral part in the design, testing, and implementation of the first AFSPC automated breakup and uncorrelated target algorithm to process radar tracking data. He did the trajectory analysis work needed for AFSPC support to the Air Force F-15 ASAT program. He led the AFSPC technical team participating in the space shuttle Columbia accident investigation. During most of his career he has used the Air Force astrodynamic standards to perform orbital analysis in support of AFSPC operations. During the later part of his career, the AFSPC software team responsible for maintaining the astrodynamic standards was part of his branch and reported to him. Mr. Morris is a recipient of the USAF Analyst Lifetime Achievement Award. Mr. Morris earned a B.A. in chemistry at Duke University. AUBREY B. POORE is CEO and chief scientist at Numerica Corporation and an emeritus professor of mathemat - ics at Colorado State University (CSU). While at CSU, he received the CSU Alumni Association’s Distinguished Faculty Award in 1999 and the CSU Research Foundation’s Technology Transfer Award in 2004. At Numerica, Dr. Poore has led the algorithm development and implementation for several award-winning tracking systems, including the Best of Breed Tracker at MITRE/Hanscom AFB in 1996 for the best tracking system in the nation for AWACS; the Multipurpose Helicopter under the U.S. Navy’s LAMPS Program; the track processing and situation assessment algorithms in the Missile Defense Agency’s Command, Control, Battle Management and Communica - tions System; the distributed tracking system for the U.S. Army’s Integrated Air and Missile Defense Program; and the Advanced Fusion Tracking System for Ultra Electronics. At Numerica, Dr. Poore works on multiple target tracking, nonlinear estimation, combinatorial optimization, and sensor and communications resource management. Dr. Poore earned a B.S. in applied mathematics and an M.S. in engineering mechanics at Georgia Institute of Technology. He earned a Ph.D. in applied mathematics from the California Institute of Technology. RYAN P. RUSSELL is an assistant professor in the Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics at the University of Texas at Austin. He began his professional career as a member of the Guidance, Navigation, and Control Section at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), where he was involved as a mission designer and orbit determination analyst for a variety of spaceflight projects. From 2007 to 2011, he was on the faculty at the Georgia Institute of Technology, creating a research program focused on a variety of theoretical and applied areas in astrodynamics. He has authored or co-authored dozens of journal, conference, and other tech - nical publications and has been a recipient of several NASA, JPL, AIAA, American Astronautical Society, and other awards. He is currently on the AIAA Astrodynamics Technical Committee and the American Astronautical Society Space Flight Mechanics Committee. He is an associate editor for the Journal of Optimization Theory and
OCR for page 63
66 CONTINUING KEPLER’S QUEST—ASSESSING AIR FORCE SPACE COMMAND’S ASTRODYNAMICS STANDARDS Applications. He received his B.S. in aerospace engineering from Texas A&M University and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in aerospace engineering from the University of Texas at Austin. DONALD G. SAARI is a distinguished professor of economics and mathematics and director of the Institute for Mathematical Behavioral Sciences at the University of California, Irvine (UCI). Dr. Saari’s research interests include dynamical systems, their applications to the physical and social sciences, and the development of new research tools motivated by dynamics. In addition to his recent interests in the mathematics of the social and behavioral sciences, Dr. Saari has been deeply interested in questions about celestial mechanics and the New - tonian N-body problem, starting with his mathematics Ph.D. thesis (Purdue University) developing the analytic theory of collisions in Newtonian N-body systems. Dr. Saari served as chief editor of the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society and is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the AAAS, and he is a foreign member of the Finnish Academy of Science and Letters and is a Guggenheim Fellow. In addition, he has received several professional awards, including the UCI Distinguished Faculty Award for Research and the Allendoerfer Award from the Mathematical Association of America. Dr. Saari earned a B.A. in mathematics from Michigan Technical University, and an M.S. and a Ph.D. in mathematics from Purdue University. He has previously served as a member on several NRC committees such as the Mathematical Sciences Education Board and the U.S. National Committee for the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, and he served as chair of the U.S. National Committee for Mathematics. DANIEL J. SCHEERES is the A. Richard Seebass Endowed Chair Professor in the Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences at the University of Colorado, Boulder, and a member of the Colorado Center for Astrody - namics Research. Prior to this he held faculty positions in aerospace engineering at the University of Michigan and Iowa State University and was a member of the technical staff in the navigation systems section at the California Institute of Technology’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. He has authored or co-authored more than 150 papers, notes, and chapters in peer-reviewed journals and more than 190 conference papers. His research interests include space situational awareness; the dynamics, control, and navigation of spacecraft trajectories; optimal control; celestial mechanics; and dynamical astronomy. He is a fellow of the American Astronautical Society, a member of the Celestial Mechanics Institute (where he is currently vice president), and an associate fellow of AIAA, and he has served on the AIAA Astrodynamics Technical Committee and the American Astronautical Society Space Flight Mechanics Committee. He is a member of the American Astronomical Society’s Division of Dynamical Astronomy (where he is currently chair) and Division on Planetary Sciences and is a member of the International Astronomi - cal Union. He is an associate editor for the journals Celestial Mechanics & Dynamical Astronomy, the Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics, the Journal of the Astronautical Sciences, and the SIAM Journal of Applied Dynamical Systems. He is the recipient of two NASA group awards for his work on the NEAR mission, and Aster- oid 8887 is named “Scheeres” in recognition of his contributions to the scientific understanding of the dynamical environment about asteroids. He was awarded his Ph.D., M.S.E., and B.S.E degrees in aerospace engineering from the University of Michigan, and he holds a B.S. in letters and engineering from Calvin College. Dr. Scheeres has previously served on the NRC Committee to Review Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies. WILLIAM P. SCHONBERG is a professor and chair of the Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering Department at Missouri University of Science and Technology. Dr. Schonberg has 25 years of teaching and research experience in the areas of shock physics, spacecraft protection, hypervelocity impact, and penetration mechanics. The results of his research have been applied to a wide variety of engineering problems, including the develop - ment of orbital debris protection systems for spacecraft in low Earth orbit, kinetic energy weapons, the collapse of buildings under explosive loads, insensitive munitions, and aging aircraft. Dr. Schonberg has published more than 65 papers in refereed journals and has presented nearly 65 papers at a broad spectrum of international scientific and professional meetings. He is a recipient of the AIAA Lawrence Sperry Award and the Charles Sharpe Beecher Prize from the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Dr. Schonberg is also a recipient of a Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel Research Award from the Humboldt Foundation, which enabled him to spend 7 months at the Fraunhofer Ernst Mach Institute in Freiburg, Germany, working on advanced satellite protection systems and preliminary designs for
OCR for page 63
67 APPENDIX A safe lunar habitats. He is a fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the American Society of Civil Engineers and an AIAA associate fellow. He received his B.S.C.E. from Princeton University and his M.S. and Ph.D. from Northwestern University. Dr. Schonberg served on the NRC Committee on Space Shuttle Mete - oroid/Debris Risk Management and the NRC Committee on the Assessment of NASA’s Orbital Debris Programs. RAMASWAMY SRIDHARAN is currently a part-time senior staff member at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Lincoln Laboratory, where he has focused his research on space surveillance, optical and radar systems, and orbital dynamics for more than 35 years. His publications range over systems for space surveillance, orbital dynamics, and debris studies. He has worked with AFSC for many years and is familiar with orbit determi - nation as applied there as well as at other institutions. He is a former Associate Group Leader in the Surveillance Techniques Group and Group Leader at the Lincoln Laboratory Space Surveillance Complex. He received a B.E. degree in electrical engineering from the V.J.T. Institute, Bombay, India, and a Ph.D. in electrical engineering (applied space science) from Carnegie Mellon University. Since joining Lincoln Laboratory in 1972, he has been involved in a variety of projects relating to space surveillance, including the Millstone Hill radar, the Haystack radar, ALTAIR, and the Space-Based Visible program. He is also the originator of the Space Control Conference held every year at Lincoln Laboratory. Staff DWAYNE A. DAY, Study Director, a senior program officer for the NRC’s Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB), has a Ph.D. in political science from the George Washington University. Dr. Day joined the NRC as a program officer for the Space Studies Board (SSB). Before this, he served as an investigator for the Colum - bia Accident Investigation Board, was on the staff of the Congressional Budget Office, and also worked for the Space Policy Institute at the George Washington University. He has held Guggenheim and Verville fellowships and was an associate editor of the German spaceflight magazine Raumfahrt Concrete, in addition to writing for such publications as Novosti Kosmonavtiki (Russia), Spaceflight, and Space Chronicle (United Kingdom). He has served as study director for several NRC reports, including Space Radiation Hazards and the Vision for Space Exploration (2006), Grading NASA’s Solar System Exploration Program: A Midterm Review (2008), and Opening New Frontiers in Space: Choices for the Next New Frontiers Announcement of Opportunity (2008). CATHERINE A. GRUBER, editor, joined the SSB as a senior program assistant in 1995. Ms. Gruber first came to the NRC in 1988 as a senior secretary for the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board and also worked as an outreach assistant for the National Science Resources Center. She was a research assistant (chemist) in the National Institute of Mental Health’s Laboratory of Cell Biology for 2 years. She has a B.A. in natural science from St. Mary’s College of Maryland. AMANDA R. THIBAULT, research associate, joined the ASEB in 2011. Ms. Thibault is a graduate of Creighton University, where she earned her B.S. in atmospheric science in 2008. From there she went on to Texas Tech Uni - versity, where she studied lightning trends in tornadic and non-tornadic supercell thunderstorms and worked as a teaching and research assistant. She participated in the VORTEX 2 field project from 2009 to 2010 and graduated with an M.S. in atmospheric science from Texas Tech in August 2010. She is a member of the American Meteo - rological Society. ANDREA M. REBHOLZ, program associate, joined the ASEB in 2009. She began her career at the National Academies in 2005 as a senior program assistant for the Institute of Medicine’s Forum on Drug Discovery, Devel - opment, and Translation. Prior to the Academies, she worked in the communications department of a D.C.-based think tank. Ms. Rebholz graduated from George Mason University’s New Century College with a B.A. in integra - tive studies–event management and has more than 8 years of experience in event planning.
OCR for page 63
68 CONTINUING KEPLER’S QUEST—ASSESSING AIR FORCE SPACE COMMAND’S ASTRODYNAMICS STANDARDS MICHAEL H. MOLONEY is the director of the SSB and the ASEB at the NRC. Since joining the NRC in 2001, Dr. Moloney has served as a study director at the National Materials Advisory Board, the Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA), the Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design, and the Center for Economic, Gover- nance, and International Studies. Before joining the SSB and ASEB in April 2010, he was associate director of the BPA and study director for the Astro2010 decadal survey for astronomy and astrophysics. In addition to his professional experience at the NRC, Dr. Moloney has more than 7 years’ experience as a foreign-service officer for the Irish government and served in that capacity at the Embassy of Ireland in Washington, D.C., the Mission of Ireland to the United Nations in New York, and the Department of Foreign Affairs in Dublin, Ireland. A physicist, Dr. Moloney did his graduate Ph.D. work at Trinity College Dublin in Ireland. He received his undergraduate degree in experimental physics at University College Dublin, where he was awarded the Nevin Medal for Physics.