value and responsibility. Collaboration in fostering interest in resilience in the community can ensure that the full fabric of the community has the opportunity to be included in the problem–solving endeavor–and that it represents public and private interests and people with diverse social and economic backgrounds.
Building organizational capacity and leadership Meaningful private–public partnerships for community resilience depend upon strong governance and organizational structures, leadership, and sustained resources for success.
Resilience plan A priority activity for a local disaster collaborative is planning for stepwise improvements in community resilience.

Community Coalitions to Foster Community Resilience

Teaming up to take proactive steps to manage risks—such as a resilience private—public coalition—embodies several preconditions for successful adaptation by a community facing a major disturbance or stress. In their interdisciplinary review of the resilience literature, Norris et al. (2008) conclude that those communities that adapt well to adversity—and quickly return to a state of population wellness—do so through reliance on four key resources and their interactions: (1) economic resources (including the level and diversity of, and access to, these resources), (2) social capital (including organizational and interpersonal links, the sense of community among the citizens, and citizens’ own participation in community life), (3) information and communication (which have to involve trusted information sources and outlets), and (4) community competence (group skills for collective action and a system of shared beliefs). Another leading model of resilience similarly recognizes resources, communication, connectedness, commitment, and shared values, and critical reflection and skill building as major contributing factors to a community’s ability to rebound from disasters (Pfefferbaum et al., 2008).

In this context, private—public partnerships become an essential vehicle for enhancing community resilience to disasters (e.g., the Safeguard Iowa Partnership; see NRC, 2011b). Such partnerships have the potential to focus diverse social networks around a common cause, to facilitate the sharing of information essential to understanding risk and means to reduce it, and to apply the intellectual strengths of many people to the problems of building resilience to disasters. These partnerships serve as coalitions to act as a collective and cohesive unit that can define, address, and solve problems for the betterment of the community (Pfefferbaum et al., 2008). Experience in the emergency



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