•   Define “national resilience” and frame the primary issues related to increasing national resilience to hazards and disasters in the United States;

•   Provide goals, baseline conditions, or performance metrics for resilience at the U.S. national level;

•   Describe the state of knowledge about resilience to hazards and disasters in the United States;

•   Outline additional information or data and gaps and obstacles to action that need to be addressed in order to increase resilience to hazards and disasters in the United States; and

•   Present conclusions and recommendations about what approaches are needed to elevate national resilience to hazards and disasters in the United States.

This report responds to this charge by providing actionable recommendations and guidance on how to increase national resilience from the level of the local community, states, regions, and the nation. Because the nation’s culture has traditionally been focused on responses to emergencies or to specific disaster events rather than on coherent assessment, planning, and evaluation to increase disaster resilience, the report also recognizes the need for a new national framework for a “culture of disaster resilience” that includes:

(1)  Public awareness of and responsibility for managing local disaster nsk (Chapter 2);

(2)  Establishing the economic and human value of resilience to help encourage long-term commitments to enhancing resilience (Chapter 3);

(3)  Tools or metrics for monitoring progress toward resilience and to understand what resilience looks like for different communities (Chapter 4);

(4)  Creating local, community capacity, because decisions and the ultimate resilience of our nation derive from the bottom-up community efforts (Chapter 5);

(5)  Identifying sound, top-down government policies and practices to build resilience (Chapter 6); and

(6)  Identifying and communicating the necessary roles and responsibilities between communities and all levels of government m building resilience. including gaps m and challenges to communications and actions among these actors (Chapter 7).

To make the task more manageable, the committee drew from the extensive literature and understanding about natural disasters, but recognizes that many of the ideas and findings are applicable to other hazards and disasters. Chapters 2, 3, and 4 provide a foundation for understanding resilience in terms of management, data, metrics, and approaches that represent important elements of building resilient communities. Chapters 5, 6, and 7 focus on the people—the communities and governing institutions—who make decisions to manage and

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