All federal agencies are responsible for increasing resilience and for developing the national resilience vision, although different agencies will take the lead for various aspects of resilience.
In PPD-8, the President directs the Secretary of Homeland Security to “coordinate a comprehensive campaign to build and sustain national preparedness, including public outreach and community-based and private-sector programs to enhance national resilience, the provision of Federal financial assistance, preparedness efforts by the Federal Government, and national research and development efforts” (White House and DHS, 2011). Through PPD-8, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is directed to assume a broad coordination and leadership role that brings national resilience into focus at the federal level, and provides clear and coordinated collaboration with state and local government, the private sector, and individuals. The coordination of public outreach, federal financial assistance, preparedness efforts by other federal agencies, and resilience-related research and development efforts across the government is a necessary responsibility for DHS and all relevant federal agencies to pursue aggressively. A group of federal agencies convened under the presidential authority of PPD-8 should address the following short-term tasks (in the 1- to 2-year time frame) to incorporate resilience as an organizing principle in federal agency missions and actions:
(1) Develop a national vision of resilience:
• Develop, with participation of state, local, and private-sector stakeholders, a vision of national resilience to serve as a foundation for longer-term discussion of a national vision to be shared with communities (at state, regional, and local levels).
• Define, within each federal agency, resilience-related roles, responsibilities, and key ongoing activities, especially as related to existing efforts related to homeland security and disaster reduction;
(2) Develop a communications strategy to promote resilience among federal agencies, state and local government, and other stakeholders, including NGOs such as hospitals, religious communities, aid agencies, schools, and universities. Communications could be aided by provision of a real or virtual forum for all community stakeholders to share knowledge, experience, and needs among those focusing on national resilience.
(3) Develop and facilitate an effective coordination, collaboration, and accountability process for resilience planning and implementation among federal agencies. The current efforts in homeland security and disaster reduction support such coordination among federal agencies, but a focus on long-term planning, policy impacts, and gathering input from state and local