TABLE 2.2 Illustrative Risk Management Tools, Actors, Time Frames, Benefits, and Potential Adverse Impacts

Illustrative Risk Management Tools Relevant Individuals, Groups and Organizations)
Time Frame

Potential Benefits

Potential Adverse Impacts
Structural (construction-related)
Levees, dams, and floodways USACE, USGS, FEMA; state, county, and local governments; researchers; private sector 1-2 years, evaluation and decision; 3-50 years, construction Flood risk reduction Belief that levee will fully protect against all floods
Disaster- resistant construction and retrofitting of existing building stock Federal government, local officials, researchers, private sector (risk management firms and engineering firms), professional organizations, individuals On the order of weeks to years depending on measures employed and size of structure Mitigation against extreme weather events, other natural hazards such as earthquakes and wildfires, floods, and hurricanes Cost of the measures, belief that energy dissipation systems will fully protect against all hazards


Engineering and construction firms individual Similar to or slightly longer time to build than other new homes Mitigation against a variety of natural hazards; reduce losses Cost may be higher than with non-hazard- conscious buildings

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