building businesses and homeowners federal and state governments professional organizations or businesses    
Securing building components and contents Building owners, tenants At the time the building is occupied Reduce earthquake (or other) damage for low investment None
Well- enforced building codes Local officials working in conjunction with USGS, NOAA, USFS, FEMA, NIST; engineering firms and professional safety and engineering organizations; businesses and homeowners Code development: months to several years to review and revise existing codes relative to existing hazard risk Code enforcement: continuous Home owners and business owners adopt mitigation measures; seals of approval on homes to show that property meets mitigation standards Inability of some residents to afford compliance and lack of safety net
Nonstructural (nonconstruction-related)
Natural defenses Communities, regions, states, federal government 1-4 years: evaluation and decision; from 3 years to many lifetimes Protect structures built behind them by reducing impacts of disasters (wind, water, fire) May prevent building new structures on protected areas; requires long-term perspective

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