Risk mapping FEMA, USACE, NOAA, NASA, USFS, USGS in conjunction with state and local authorities; engineering firms Weeks to several years depending upon quality and availability of data and map area covered Communication of the hazard risk to the community Overreliance on accuracy of maps
Zoning ordinances Local and state governments Immediate Prohibits building or rebuilding in hazard-prone locations May prevent lucrative construction of homes or businesses in specific areas
Hazard and vulnerability disclosure Private sector; federal, state, and local governments Immediate if adopted freely by the private sector; several years or more if new legislation is required to implement Allows buyers to identify potential hazards or construction known to be vulnerable to such hazards before the purchase of a home or business; increases the value of disaster-resistant buildings May hinder sales or lower property values in areas where hazards are revealed or for vulnerable construction types
Economic and tax incentives Federal, state, and local governments May be quickly adopted and implemented if political will, competing demands for resources, and public acceptance align; realization of returns on investment Subsidies, grants, fines, or tax rebates can provide incentives to homeowners and businesses to install hazard mitigation measures Negative incentives (fines, penalties) may not be acceptable to residents or businesses; positive incentives (subsidies, grants, rebates) incur immediate costs to the government with delayed return on investment


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