Malczewski, 2010). The methods deal effectively with the disparate views of stakeholders, allowing consensus to emerge and measuring the degree to which consensus exists. For example, the analytical hierarchy process (Saaty, 1988) is a much-applied method for reconciling divergent views in the creation of a consensus metric.
Many of these principles are illustrated by the well-known LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design; Box 4.1) process, released by the U.S. Green Building Council in March 2000. By providing an open forum for the measurement of environmental sustainability of buildings, LEED has provided an important tool for promoting and achieving energy efficiency. LEED was a bottom-up initiative without any initial endorsement from government agencies. It has gained popularity in engineering and architectural design as an added value to building occupants and to the environment in general. It has also become a trademark of socially conscious organizations in the private sector. The committee was struck by the impact LEED has had and seeks to emulate its success by envisioning a similar strategy for the measurement of resilience, laid out in the final section of this chapter.
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
LEED, or Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, is an internationally recognized green-building certification system. Developed by the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) in March 2000, LEED is a framework for building owners and operators that allows identification and implementation of green building design, construction, operations, and maintenance.
LEED promotes sustainable building and development practices through a set of rating systems that recognize building projects that have adopted strategies for better environmental and health performance. The LEED rating systems are developed through an open, consensus-based process led by LEED committees comprising groups of volunteers from across the building and construction industry. Key elements of the process of developing LEED rating systems include a balanced, transparent committee structure, technical advisory groups for scientific consistency and rigor, opportunities for stakeholder comment, member ballot of new rating systems, and fair and open appeals.
LEED can apply to all building types, whether commercial or residential. LEED works throughout the building life cycle from design and construction through to tenant fitout and retrofit. LEED for Neighborhood Development is designed to allow the benefits of LEED to extend beyond a single building and into the neighborhood it serves.