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INDEX magmatic, 75, 78-79, 80, 81, 83, 84, 87-90, 91, 97, 103, 104, 107 pressure/porosity, 120 Gravitational processes pressure, 42-43, 68 sliding, 10, 32, 140 Great Britain, 128 Greenland, 81, 84 Groundwater tables, 6 contamination, 10, 21, 31-32 free water, 5, 14, 113-125 heat transport, 15-16, 27, 30 magmatic interactions, 15, 27, 38, 78-90 mass transport, 9, 27 topography and, 11-12, 137, 141, 145, 146 Gulf Coast Basin, 14, 17, 36, 37, 39, 135, 138 H Heat, see Hydrothermal processes; Thermal processes Heat transport, 3, 5, 6, 15-19, 30, 31, 33, 38, 64, 82, 114, 132, 149, 152 carbon dioxide flux, 159-160 Helium, 86, 130 Hercynian orogeny, 98, 99, 100, 103, 106-110 Himalayas, 137, 146 Hydraulic processes, see Pressure processes Hydrocarbons, 5, 21, 130, 134, 135-138 coal, 133 methane, 39, 141, 151, 152, 153 natural gas, 21, 27 oil, 10, 21, 27, 135, 136 Hydrogen isotopes, 59, 72, 75-77, 79, 81, 89, 91, 96, 105-106, 107, 108, 109, 114 Hydrothermal processes, 5, 27, 132 commercial use, 16, 38 continental margins, 64 convection, 6, 15-16, 27, 30, 33, 37, 38, 42,50,73,77,90, 110, 111 field studies, 19 fracture/joint systems, 50-61, S9 gabbro bodies, 73, 81-84 magmatic, 6, 15, 27, 38, 42-48, 50-61, 70, 76, 78-90 metamorphism, 17, 64, 65, 66, 70, 72-92, 96-111 meteoric, 18, 38, 51, 59, 73, 75-81, 82, 96, 104 modeling, 19 ore deposits, 3, 29, 38, 59, 114-115, 124 pressure and, 5-6, 15, 27, 37, 38, 39, 42, 82, 152-155, 162-163 salinity, 59 see also Heat transport, Plutons I Iceland, 80, 85-87, 110 Idaho, 84, 96 batholith, 78-80 Igneous phenomena anatexis, 108-111 167 basalts' 65, 84-90, 159 batholiths, 33, 54, 75-80, 81, 87-88, 115 biotites, 77, 82, 99, 101, 103, 104, 105 gabbro, 73, 81-84 hydrogen isotopes, 105 monzonite, 81 ophiolites, 82 porphyry, 52, 53-54, 58, 59, 60 surface water circulation and, 72 xenoliths, 87-88 see also Feldspar; Granite and granitoids; Magma and magmatic processes; Plutons Illinois, 136 Illite, 14, 17, 37, 39, 134, 149 India, 137, 145 Indiana, 136 Indian Ocean, 82, 87-88 Iron chlorites, 77-78, 82, 83, 98, 99 Islands and island arcs, 52, 54, 75, 80, 81-82, 87-88, 148-155 Isotope geochemistry, 16, 18, 55, 59, 66, 111 carbon, 96, 158-159 hydrogen, 59, 72, 75-77, 79, 81, 89, 91, 96, 105-106, 107, 108, 109, 114 oxygen, 33, 599 65, 72-92, 96-97, 98, 99-105, 106, 107, 108, 109-110, 114 strontium, 99, 100, 106-107, 108, 109 J Joint sets and systems, 50~61 fluid pressure and, 144-145, 146 magma processes, 51, 53-54 Jurassic period, 75 K Kodiak Islands, 148-155 Kola Peninsula, 5, 21 L Lakes and lacustrine geology, 77-78, 141 Lead, 15, 133, 134 M Magma and magmatic processes anatexis, 108-111 arc, 149 basaltic and rhyolitic, 65, 84-90, 159 carbon dioxide, 159 crystalline, 16, 38, 45, 47, 53-54, 80, 83-84, 87, 90-91 fracture processes, 44 48, 50-61 granitic, 75, 78-79, 80, 81, 83, 84, 87-90, 91, 97, 103, 104, 107 hydrothermal, 6, 15, 27, 38, 42-48, 50-61, 70, 76, 78-90 joint formation, 51, 53-54 mineralization, 27-28, 117 permeability, 33 pressure effects, 38, 42~8, 159 seismic reflection, 129-130 see also Plutons Magnesium chlorites, 77-78, 82, 83, 98, 99 Magnetism, 5, 115, 13~135 Magnetite, 82 Mantle, 16-17, 39, 70, 130, 150, 158-159 oxygen isotopes, 96-97, 103, 105 Maryland, 134 Massifs, 98, 99, 101-107, 108, 109 Mass transport, 3, 6-7, 15, 27-32 carbon dioxide flux, 159-160 chemical, 9, 31-33 deep crustal, 5, 8 in equations, 6, 29 field studies, 17-19 Measurement instruments and techniques computer applications, 4, 15, 19, 20, 22 deep-crustal fluids, 5, 128-138 drilling, 5, 58, 86, 90, 96, 111 electrical conductivity/resistivity, 5, 11, 33, 115, 150 fluid inclusion, 150-155, 158 microscopy, 118 radiometric dating, 55 reflection seismology, 5, 124-125, 128-138, 145 wells, 66-67 see also Isotope geochemistry Melts and melting, 3, 111 anatexis, 108-111 granites, 98 ocean crust/lithosphere, 122-123 pelitic, 98-99, 108, 111 silicates, 52, 53-54, 87, 89, 90-91, 98 surface water systems and, 72-92 water budgets, 108-109 see also Magma and magmatic processes Mesozoic era, 51, 52, 76, 78, 150 see also Cretaceous period; Jurassic period; Triassic period Metals formation, 15,- 38 transport in ores, 4 see also specipc metals Metamorphism, 18, 33, 42, 66 biotites, 77, 82, 99, 101, 103, 104, 105 ductile, 5, 89, 90, 111 gneisses, 97, 98-99, 101-110 (passim), 117 granite, 97, 99, 100, 103, 104, 105, 107 Hercynian, 98, 99, 100, 103, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110 hydrothermal, 17, 64, 65, 66, 70, 72-92, 96-111 regional, 33, 64-70, 96-111 see also Crystalline rock and crystallization Metasomatism, 27 Meteoric water, 51, 73, 105, 115 hydrothermal systems, 18, 38, 51, 59, 73, 75-81, 82, 96, 104 precipitation, 18, 38 salinity, 59 topography and, 11-12, 137, 141

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168 Methane, 39, 141, 151, 152, 153 Methodology, see Measurement instruments and techniques Mexico, 53, 81 Mica, 97, 98, 99, 100, 105-106, 163 Michigan, 136-137 Microscopy, 118 Middle East, 137 Minerals and mineralogy, 3, 9, 5, 15, 16-17, 21, 31-32, 64-65 brines, 133-138 density, 43, 68 diagenesis, 12, 13-15, 27, 36-37, 134, 149 fractures, 4, 15, 27-28, 47-48, 53, 55-59, 69-70, 81, 82, 118, 120-121, 122, 124, 153 gabbros, oxygen isotopes, 73, 82 gneisses, 97, 98-99, 101-110 (passim), 117 hydration/dehydration, 15-16, 38-39, 56-57 joint sets and systems, 51, 53, 144-145 magmatic, 27-28, 117 paragenesis, 55-59 see also Clay; Crystalline rock and crystallization; Isotope geochemistry; Metamorphism; Ores; Rock processes; specific minerals Miocene epoch meteoric hydrothermal systems, 79, 80 stress directions, 55 Models analytical, 23 artesian flow, 141 carbon dioxide flux, 159-160, 163 computer applications, 4, 15, 19, 20, 22 crustal dynamics, 4 geothermal reservoirs, 16, 38 hydraulic, 13-14, 117-118 parameterization, 6-9, 23, 28 sedimentation-consolidation, 14- 15 tectonic, 129, 131-133, 150, 152-153 see also Equations Momentum, 6 Montana, 81 Montmorillonite, 14, 17, 37, 39, 134, 149 Monzonite, 81 Mountains, see Orography; specific mountain ranges Muscovite, 105-106 sericite, 83, 98 N Natural gas, 21, 27 Navier-Stokes equation, 28 Nevada, 51, 90, 91, 92, 130 New York, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145 North America, 90, 138, 145. meteoric hydrothermal systems, 75-81 reflection seismology, 132, 134, 135, see also geographic subdivisions Nuclear wastes, see Radioactive wastes INDEX o Ocean crust, 19, 122-123, 149-155, 158, 159 ophiolites, 82 Oceans, see Seawater; specific oceans Ohio, 136 Oil, 10, 21, 27, 135, 136 Okanagan Lake, 77-78 Oklahoma, 135 Ophiolites, 82 Ordovician period, 98, 99, 107, 134 Oregon, 15, 21, 80 Ores, 27, 32, 33, 59, 133-134 diagenesis, 12, 13-15, 27, 3~37, 134, 149 hydrothermal processes, 3, 29, 38, 59, 114-115, 124 metal transport, 4 Organic material, 21, 135, 136, 158 see also Hydrocarbons Orography cordilleras, 75-78, 136 hydrothermal systems, metamorphism and anatexis, 96-111 massifs, 98, 99, 101-107, 108, 109 mountain fold belts, 64 topographic flow, 12, 137, 141, 145, 146 see also specific mountains Orogeny, 51-52 brine expulsion, 133-138 fluid pressure, 140-146, 153 Hercynian, 98, 99, 100, 103, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110 overthrusting, 10, 32-33, 135, 136, 137, 140-146 uplift, 12, 97, 141, 145' 146 Overthrusting, 10, 32-33, 135, 136, 137, 140-146 Oxygen isotopes, 33, 59, 65, 72-92, 96-110, 114 p Pacific region, 51-52, 122, 150, 158 see also geographic subunits Paleocene epoch, 81 Paleomagnetism, 134-135 Paleozoic era, 97, 98, 99, 100, 104, 106, 108, 109, 110, 130, 132 see also Carboniferous period; Ordovician period; Silurian period Papua New Guinea, 54, 55, 58, 154 Paragenesis, 55-59 Parameterization, 6-9, 23, 28 Petite, 65, 68, 69, 70, 98-99, 100, 101, 102, 107, 108, 111 Pennsylvania, 134, 135, 142, 143, 144, 145 Permeability and porosity conductivity related to, 28-29 crustal, general, 33-39 crystalline rock, 8, 47, 83-84 136 Darcy's Law, 7, 10, 28-29, 30, 32, 34, 37, 150 in equations, 60, 120 fracture-related, 6, 20-21, 50-61, 78, 84, 90 geometry of, 42, 45 grain boundaries, 8, 65, 69, 118, 149 infiltration, 107-108, 109, 110 pressure and, 3, 12-14, 15, 31, 35-36, 38, 114, 117-125, 141, 150-163 resistivity measurements,5,11,33, 115, 150 rock, general, 4, 5, 6, 8, 11, 17, 19-21, 27, 33, 38, 47, 69, 110, 117-118 secondary, intrusion-centered systems, 52-53, 59 time dependence, 116, 117-122, 124 Peru, 53 Phase equilibria, 4, 64, 65, 66 Physical processes, 7 advection, 9, 29-30, 31, 32, 33, 47-48 conservation equations, parameters, 6-9 diffusion, 15, 29-30, 32, 117 dispersion, 29-30, 32 infiltration, 107-108, 109, 110 shear forces, 12, 15, 27, 35, 98, 115, 118, 121, 152 see also Convection; Pressure processes; Stress and strain Plagioclase, 82, 83 Plutons gabbro, 81-82 granitic, 75, 78-79, 80, 81, 83, 84, 87-90, 91, 97, 103, 104 hydrothermal systems, 15, 38, 42, 61, 75, 78-79,80,81,84, 107 joint/fracture systems, 51-55, 61 meteoric water, 75, 78-79, 80, 81 Porosity, see Permeability and porosity Porphyry, 52, 53-54, 58, 59, 60 Potassium, 86 Precambrian era, 97 Precipitation, meteorology, 18, 38 see also Meteoric water Prehnite, 82 Pressure processes, 3, 33, 66, 141 advective, 47-48 Appalachian Fold-Thrust Belt, 35, 140-146 artesian, 141 carbon dioxide, 158-163 conductivity, 28-29, 67 depth-related, 42-44, 114-125, 132 in equations, 4, 10, 29, 32, 37, 38, 42-48, 68-69, 120, 121, 122 fracturing, 6, 8, 13-14, 15, 16, 27-28, 36, 38, 42, 45, 54, 68, 69, 117-120, 122, 123, 144, 150, 151-152, 161-162 free water depth, 114-125 gneiss formation, 97, 98-99, 101-110 (passim), 117 gravitational, 42-43, 68 groundwater, 11, 12 high, 5, 10-11, 12, 14, 21, 33, 34-39, 42-48, 61, 66-67, 140-146, 149-lSO 152-153, 158-163 hydration/dehydration, 15-16, 38-39 hydrothermal systems, 5-6, 15, 27, 37, 38, 39, 42, 82, 152-155, 162-163

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INDEX joint sets and systems, 144-145, 146 S lithostatic, 5, 10, 14, 21, 33, 37, 66, 67-69, 90, 91, 110, 111, 117, 120-123, 141, 145, 146, 149-151, 158, 159 magmatic processes, 38, 42-48, 159 metamorphism, 66-69 mineral hydration, 16-17 erogenic pulses, 145-146 pore, 3, 12-15, 31, 35-36, 38, 114, 117-125, 141, 150-163 rock compression, 5, 38 sedimentary basins, 12 seismicity, 115 subduction, 3, 36, 52, 115, 122-123, 124, 132, 135, 136, 137, 148-155 tectonic, 10-13, 17, 21, 32-33, 35-36, 114, 115, 141, 144 temperature and, 5-6, 15, 27, 37, 38, 39, 42, 82, 152-155, 162-163 time-dependent, 13, 113-115 topographic, 12, 141, 145, 146 water properties, 38, 42 see also Stress and strain Pyrenees, 33, 65, 73, 89, 91, 96-111 Pyroxene, 82, 83 Q Quartz, 48, 52, 55-59, 60, 61, 64, 65-66, 69-70, 73-75, 78, 81-84, 88, 99, 101, 104, 105, 118, 120-121, 150 see also Granite and granitoids Quaternary period, 79-80 R Radioactive wastes, 10, 20 Radiometric dating, 55 Reflection seismology, 5, 124-125, 128-138, 145 Research, recommended, 17-23 field studies, 17-19 fluid inclusion, 154 fractured rocks, 17, 19 permeability, 19-21 tectonics, 22 Rhyolite, 52, 84-90, 159 Rift zones, 72, 86, 87, 89, 90, 91, 109, 110, 129-130 Rock processes, 4, 18, 45 basement complexes, 97, 98 compression, 5, 38 deformation, 36 density, 43, 68 in equations, 43 joint systems, 50-61, 144-145, 146 permeability, 4, 5, 6, 8, 11, 17, 19-21, 27, 33, 38, 53, 69 volume, 6, 43, 51, 52-53, 58, 59, 123 see also Crystalline rock and crystalliza tion; Fracture processes; Magma and magmatic processes; Metamorphism; Permeability and porosity 169 Salt and salt systems, 20, 59, 65, 133-135, 143, 154 brines, 125, 133-138 see also Seawater San Andreas Fault, 12-13, 35-36, 116 San Juan Mountains, 81, 90 Saudi Arabia, 81 Scotland, 81-82 Seawater, 73, 75, 81, 90, 96, 104, 105, 106, 108, 109, 122-123 Sedimentology, 12 basement complexes and, 97 continental margins, 64 diagenesis, 12, 13-15, 27, 36-37, 134, 149 oxygen isotopes, 96 petite, 65, 68, 69, 70, 98, 100, 101, 102, 107, 108 pore pressure, 14-15, 35, 36-37 rock fractures, 19 topography, 12 see also Isotope geochemistry; Minerals and Mineralogy Seismology, 115-116, 124 orogeny, 51 reflection, 5, 124-125, 128-138, 145 see also Earthquakes Sensitivity analysis, 23 Sericite, 83, 98 Seychelles Islands, 80, 87-88 Shale, 8, 20, 33, 35, 96, 99, 100, 106, 107, 109, 117, 142, 143, 146 Shear forces, 12, 15, 27, 35, 98, 115, 118, 121, 152 Silicates, 48, 527 56-57, 64, 85, 86, 89, 102, 151, 163 amphiboles, 82, 88, 97, 98-99, 101, 106, 109, 153 andalusite, 98, 101, 109 chlorites, 77-78, 82, 83, 98, 99 melts, 52, 53-54, 87, 89, 90-91, 98 mica, 97, 98, 99, 100, 106, 163 pyroxene, 82, 83 rhyolite, 52, 84-90, 159 see also Feldspar Silurian period, 135, 143 Silver, 81 Skaergaard intrusion, 15, 80-82, 84 Slocan Lake, 78 South Dakota, 8, 12, 35 Soviet Union, 5, 14, 21, 36, 37 Spatial dimension, 111 hydrocarbons, 135-138 joint sets, 144 modeling, computer power needs, 22 Stress and strain, 27, 30-31 in equations, 31, 36-37, 43 failure criteria, 15, 27, 38, 44, 45-48, 50, 54, 122, 123, 124 faults, 121, 124, 141, 145 joint/fracture systems, 54-55 pore pressure, 3, 12-14, 15, 31, 35-36, 38, 114, 117-125 regional, 42, 51, 55 tensile, 15, 27, 46, 54, 68, 144, 151 see also Fracture processes; Pressure processes; Shear forces; Tectonics Strontium, 99, 100, 106-107, 108, 109 Subduction, 3, 36,51-52,55,70, 115, 122-123, 124, 132, 135, 136, 137, 148-155 Subsidence, 15. 37, 44 Supercritical fluids, 6, 27, 37, 54, 82 Surface water, see Meteoric water; Seawater Sutter, M. J., 134 Switzerland, 69 T Tectonics basalt/rhyolitic magmas, 89, 90 brines, 125, 133-138 carbon dioxide degassing, 39 continental margins, 64 diagenesis and, 134 dilation and compression, 12-13, 35-36 in equations, 29, 35, 39 joint/fracture systems, 51-52, 54, 55, 61 models, 129, 131-133 overthrusting, 10, 32-33, 135, 136, 137, 140-146 pressure, 10-13, 17, 21, 32-33, 35-36, 114, 115, 141, 144, 158 reflection seismology, 129, 131 - 138 rift zones, 72, 86, 87, 89, 90, 91, 109, 110 subsidence, 15, 37, 44 surface water circulation, 72 uplift, 12, 97, 141, 145, 146 see also Earthquakes; Faults; Orogeny; Subduction Tennessee, 134 Tension and tensile strength, 15, 27, 46, 54, 68, 144, 151 Tertiary period, 52, 75, 76, 78, 80, 81, 91 see also Paleocene epoch Texas, 134, 135 Thermal processes, 15-16, 37-38 commercial use, 16, 38 crack healing, 120-121 cracking, 144 in equations, 4, 10, 29, 30, 32, 42-48 field studies, 19 modeling, 19 see also Heat transport; Hydrothermal processes; Magma and magmatic processes; Melts and melting Time factors, 111 hydraulics, 13, 36, 113-125 isotope changes, abrupt, 89 joint sets, 61, 144 paragenesis, 56 permeability/porosity, 116, 117-122, 124 see also Isotope geochemistry; Radiometric dating

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INDEX t ~ ~-l%. 34-35' 64. 7 ~ he's 4 7-8 Ad. ~7' 48' 53 3~-33. 48 try mid anion. 8, 65. lo7_108. 109' il0 ism. 107-~09 1 ,., od,75 ~ scion; Equation; 97, 14~. \45'146 erisland.75 l 6. %4 JO 28, 29. 6849' .8% :31 46, 47, 66' 68 39, 47, 674884686 158 ntonite' 33 -85, 89. 90 be d s 79-80. 81. 84 5 52 53-54, 6 Oint sets and SYSte orgenY' 2 84-90 rhyolite' 5 9 130 ismic refleCtiOn, \2 19%3 subtly yea_ I, 123 po~3 1%_~4,\5~3' ~3 58,59 6 38 ~ ^ ~.esses W Waste To ater 5ystemSl~ 12$ l 38 free'ipitation;lDe eo 910 g5Y9. ~%%_1%3 sources' \6-~%i ~%3 ~35, 136 s weathering, 9' ' ~ells. 66-67 89 finest Germany' 88- ~est ~irgr~d fig, 67 ,~ollastonite 64 Wyoming' 84 X Y Z Xenouths' 87~8834

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