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STUDIES IN GEOPHYSICS The Role of Fluids in Crustal Processes Geophysics Study Committee Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1990

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NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Support for the Geophysics Study Committee was provided by the Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data The Role of fluids in crustal processes / Geophysics Study Committee, Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources, National Research Council. p. cm. - (Studies in geophysics) Based on papers presented at an American Geophysical Union symposium. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-04037-X 1. Earth-Crust. 2. Fluid dynamics. I. National Research Council. (U.S.). Geophysics Study Committee. II. Series. QE5 1 1.R64 1990 55 1.1'3~c20 Copyright (~3 1990 by the National Academy of Sciences 90-35845 CIP No part of this book may be reproduced by any mechanical, photographic, or electronic process, or in the form of a phonographic recording, nor may it be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted, or otherwise copied for public or private use, without written permission from the publisher, except for the purposes of official. use by the U.S. government. Printed in the United States of America

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Pane} on The Role of Fluids in Crustal Processes JOHN D. BREDEHOEFT, U.S. Geological Survey, Cochairman DENIS L. NORTON, University of Arizona, Cochairman TERRY ENGELDER, The Pennsylvania State University AMOS M. NUR, Stanford University JACK E. OLIVER, Cornell University HUGH P. TAYLOR, JR., California Institute of Technology SPENCER R. TITLEY, University of Arizona PETER J. VROLIJK, University of Michigan JOHN V. WALTHER, Northwestern University STEPHEN M. WICKHAM, University of Chicago . . .

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Geophysics Study Committee BYRON D. TAPLEY, University of Texas, Chairman RICHARD T. BARBER, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute ROBIN BRETT, U.S. Geological Survey RALPH J. CICERONE, University of California, Irvine tRANA A. FINE, University of Miami LYNN W. GELHAR, Massachusetts Institute of Technology *ARNOLD L. GORDON, Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory *MARK F. MEIER, University of Colorado T NORMAN F. NESS, university of Delaware *THOMAS A. POTEMRA, Applied Physics Laboratory, The Johns Hopkins University t GEORGE C. REID, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration JOANNE SIMPSON, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center t ROBERT S. YEATS, Oregon State University Staff THOMAS M. USSELMAN Agency Liaison Representatives BILAL U. HAQ, National Science Foundation GEORGE A. KOLSTAD, Department of Energy NED A. OSTENSO, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration *Terms ended June 30, 1989 tTerms began July 1, 1989 1V

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Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources M. GORDON WOLMAN, The Johns Hopkins University, Chairman ROBERT C. BEARDSLEY, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution B. CLARK BURCHFIEL, Massachusetts Institute of Technology RALPH J. CICERONE, University of California, Irvine PETER S. EAGLESON, Massachusetts Institute of Technology GENE E. LIKENS, New York Botanical Gardens JERRY D. MAHLMAN, NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory SCOTT M. MATHESON, Parsons, Behle & Latimer JACK E. OLIVER, Cornell University PHILIP A. PALMER, E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. FRANK L. PARKER, Vanderbilt University DUNCAN T. FATTEN, Arizona State University MAXINE L. SAVITZ, Garrett Corporation LARRY L. SMARR, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign STEVEN M. STANLEY, Case Western Reserve University Sir CRISPIN TICKELL, United Kingdom Representative to the United Nations KARL K. TUREKIAN, Yale University IRVIN L. WHITE, New York State Energy and Development Authority JAMES H. ZUMBERGE, University of Southern California STEPHEN RATTIEN, Executive Director STEPHEN D. PARKER, Associate Executive Director v

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Studies in Geophysics ENERGY AND CLIMATE Roger R. Revelle, panel chairman, 1977, 158 pp. ESTUARIES, GEOPHYSICS, AND THE ENVIRONMENT Charles B. Officer, panel chairman, 1977, 127 pp. CLIMATE, CLIMATIC CHANGE, AND WATER SUPPLY James R. Wallis, panel chairman, 1977, 132 pp. THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE AND MAGNETOSPHERE Francis S. Johnson, panel chairman, 1977, 168 pp. GEOPHYSICAL PREDICTIONS Helmut E. Landsberg, panel chairman, 1978, 215 pp. IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY ON GEOPHYSICS Homer E. Newell, panel chairman, 1979, 136 pp. CONTINENTAL TECTONICS B. Clark Burchfiel, Jack E. Oliver, and Leon T. Silver, panel co-chairmen, 1980. 197 pp. MINERAL RESOURCES: GENETIC UNDERSTANDING FOR PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Paul B. Barton, Jr., panel chairman, 1981, 119 pp. SCIENTIFIC BASIS OF WATER-RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Myron B. Fiering, panel chairman, 1982, 127 pp. SOLAR VARIABILITY, WEATHER, AND CLIMATE John A. Eddy, panel chairman, 1982, 104 pp. *Published to date. - V11

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CLIMATE IN EARTH HISTORY Wolfgang H. Berger and John C. Crowell, panel cochairmen, 1982, 198 pp. FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH ON ESTUARIES: THE IMPORTANCE OF AN INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH L. Eugene Cronin and Charles B. Officer, panel co-chairmen, 1983, 79 pp. EXPLOSIVE VOLCANISM: INCEPTION, EVOLUTION, AND HAZARDS Francis R. Boyd, panel chairman, 1984, 176 pp. GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION John D. Bredehoeft, panel chairman, 1984, 179 pp. ACTIVE TECTONICS Robert E. Wallace, panel chairman, 1986, 266 pp. THE EARTH'S ELECTRICAL ENVIRONMENT E. Philip Krider and Raymond G. Roble, panel co-chairmen, 1986, 263 pp. SEA-LEVEL CHANGE Roger Revelle, panel chairman, 1990, 246 pp. THE ROLE OF FLUIDS IN CRUSTAL PROCESSES John D. Bredehoeft and Denis L. Norton, panel co-chairmen, 1990, 170 pp. - V111

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Preface This report is part of a series, Studies in Geophysics, that has been carried out over the past 13 years to provide (1) a source of information from the scientific community to aid policymakers in decisions on societal problems that involve geophysics and (2) assessments of emerging research topics within the broad scope of geophysics. An important part of such reports is an evaluation of the adequacy of current geophysical knowledge and the appropriateness of current research programs in addressing needed information. The study resulting in this report on the role of fluids in crustal processes is primarily in the latter category an emerging area of research but it is not without its applications in understanding (1) the tectonics of the crust, (2) the occurrences and characteristics of mineral and energy resources, and (3) waste disposal. It was initiated by the Geophysics Study Committee in consultation with the liaison representatives of the federal agencies that support the committee, relevant boards and committees within the National Research Council, and members of the scientific community. The study examines the premise that pore fluids are important in our understanding of geological processes. There is mounting evidence that pore pressure at mid-crustal depths in active tectonic areas is at or near the lithostatic load. This topic presents an exciting proposition that might help unify much of what we know about crustal processes- geological, geophysical, and geochemical. The preliminary scientific findings of the authored background chapters were presented at an American Geophysical Union symposium. In completing their chapters, the authors had the benefit of discussions at this symposium as well as the comments of several scientific referees. Ultimate responsibility for the individual chapters, however, rests with the authors. The Overview and Recommendations of the study summarizes the highlights of the chapters and formulates conclusions and recommendations. In preparing the Overview 1X

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x PREFACE and Recommendations, the panel cochairmen and the Geophysics Study Committee had the benefit of meetings that took place at the symposium, comments of the panel, several other meetings of the committee, and the comments of scientists, who reviewed the report according to procedures established by the National Research Council's Report Review Committee. Responsibility of the Overview and Recommendations rests with the Geophysics Study Committee and the cochairmen of the panel.

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Contents OVERVIEW AND RECOMMENDATIONS BACKGROUND 1. . Mass and Energy Transport in a Deforming Earth's Crust John D. Bredehoeft and Denis L. Norton 2. Pore Fluid Pressure Near Magma Chambers. Denis F. Norton 3. Evolution and Style of Fracture Permeability in Intrusion-Centered Hydrothermal Systems .... Spencer R. Titley - 4. Fluid Dynamics During Progressive Regional Metamorphism John V. Walther Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Constraints on the Deep Circulation of Surface Waters into Zones of Hydrothermal Metamorphism and Melting ...................................................... Hugh P. Taylor, Jr. 1 X1 3 ..... 27 .... 42 50 64 72

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X11 CONTENTS 6. Hydrothermal Systems Associated with Regional Metamorphism and Crustal Anatexis: Example from the Pyrenees, France 96 Stephen M. Wickham and Hugh P. Taylor, Jr. 7. Time-Dependent Hydraulics of the Earth's Crust. Amos M. Nur and Joseph Waider 8. COCORP and Fluids in the Crust . lack E. Oliver 9. Smoluchowski's Dilemma Revisited: A Note on the Fluid-Pressure History of the Central Appalachian Fold-Thrust Belt Terry Engeldler 10. Fluid Pressure History in Subduction Zones: Evidence from Fluid Inclusions in the Kodiak Accretionary Complex, Alaska Peter Vrolijk and Georgianna Myers 11. Degassing of Carbon Dioxide as a Possible Source of High Pore Pressures in the Crust . John D. Bredehoeft and Steven E. Ingebritsen Index .... . ........ 113 ....... 128 . 140 .. 148 158 ....... 165