Appendix B

Biographical Sketches of
Committee Members and Staff

Kenneth Prewitt (Chair) is the Carnegie professor of public affairs at Columbia University. Previously, he taught at the University of Chicago, Stanford University, Washington University, in Kenya and Uganda. His other positions included director of the U.S. Census Bureau and of the National Opinion Research Center, president of the Social Science Research Council, senior vice president of the Rockefeller Foundation, and dean at the New School University. His current writing focuses on how to improve race statistics and why that matters and the use of science in policy interests. He is a fellow of numerous professional associations and broadly active in science policy. He has a Ph.D. in political science from Stanford University.

George W. Bohrnstedt is senior vice president for research (emeritus) at the American Institutes for Research, where he helped in the development of new programs of research for the organization. He has had an interest in measurement in the social sciences throughout his professional career, growing out of his minor in educational psychology with an emphasis on tests and measurement. He currently chairs the National Center for Education Statistics’ Validity Studies Panel for the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) and works on two other NAEP research projects. He has B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in sociology and a minor in educational psychology from the University of Wisconsin–Madison.



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Appendix B Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff Kenneth Prewitt (Chair) is the Carnegie professor of public affairs at Columbia University. Previously, he taught at the University of Chicago, Stanford University, Washington University, in Kenya and Uganda. His other positions included director of the U.S. Census Bureau and of the National Opinion Research Center, president of the Social Science Research Council, senior vice president of the Rockefeller Foundation, and dean at the New School University. His current writing focuses on how to improve race statistics and why that matters and the use of science in policy interests. He is a fellow of numerous professional associations and broadly active in science policy. He has a Ph.D. in political science from Stanford University. George W. Bohrnstedt is senior vice president for research (emeritus) at the American Institutes for Research, where he helped in the development of new programs of research for the organization. He has had an interest in measurement in the social sciences throughout his professional career, grow- ing out of his minor in educational psychology with an emphasis on tests and measurement. He currently chairs the National Center for Education Statistics' Validity Studies Panel for the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) and works on two other NAEP research projects. He has B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in sociology and a minor in educational psychology from the University of WisconsinMadison. 103

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104 USING SCIENCE AS EVIDENCE IN PUBLIC POLICY Norman M. Bradburn is Tiffany and Margaret Blake distinguished service professor emeritus of the University of Chicago and a senior fellow at the National Opinion Research Center (NORC). Associated with NORC since 1961, he has been both director and president of its Board of Trustees. At the National Research Council, he has chaired the Committee on National Statistics, the panel to advise the Census Bureau on alternative methods for conducting the census in the year 2000, the panel to review the National Assessment of Educational Progress, and the panel to assess the 2000 census. From 2000-2004, he was the assistant director for the Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences Directorate at the National Science Foundation. Bradburn has a Ph.D. in social psychology from Harvard University. Alicia L. Carriquiry is distinguished professor of statistics at Iowa State University. Her research interests are in Bayesian statistics and general methods. Her recent work focuses on nutrition and dietary assessment, as well as on problems in genomics, forensic sciences, and traffic safety. Carriquiry is an elected member of the International Statistical Institute, a fellow of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics, and a fellow of the American Statistical Association. She has served on the executive commit- tee of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics, of the International Society for Bayesian Analysis, and of the American Statistical Association and was a member of the board of trustees of the National Institute of Statistical Sciences. She has served on several committees and panels of the National Academies including the standing Committee on National Statistics. She is currently chairing a committee that is discussing approaches to estimate the number of illegal border crossings in the Southwestern border of the United States. She has a M.Sc. in animal science from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and a M.Sc. in statistics and a Ph.D. in statistics and animal genetics from Iowa State University. Nancy D. Cartwright is professor of philosophy in the Department of Phi- losophy, Logic and Scientific Method in the London School of Economics and Political Science; she is also professor of philosophy at the University of California, San Diego. Her principal interests are the philosophy and history of science (especially physics and economics), causal inference, and evidence and objectivity in science and policy. She has recently served as president of the Philosophy of Science Association and of the American Philosophical Association, Pacific Division. Cartwright has a Ph.D. in phi- losophy from the University of Illinois at Chicago.

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APPENDIX B 105 Harris Cooper is professor of psychology and chair of the Department of Psychology and Neuroscience at Duke University. His work involves re- search syntheses and meta-analysis in varied fields, such as personality and social psychology, developmental psychology, marketing, and developmen- tal medicine and child neurology; he is also interested in the application of social and developmental psychology to education policy issues. He is past editor of the Psychological Bulletin and currently serves as the chief editorial adviser for the journals program of the American Psychological Association. He has a Ph.D. in social psychology from the University of Connecticut. Jonathan R. Dolle is a research associate for evaluation and field building at the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, where he also directs the foundation's postbaccalaureate fellowship program. His current work focuses on understanding how education organizations can adapt tools and methods from quality improvement efforts in health care and manufacturing. From 2005 to 2010, Dolle worked as a research assis- tant on Carnegie's business education and liberal learning project, where he co-authored the book Rethinking Undergraduate Business Education. In the fall of 2009, he was a Mirzayan policy fellow at the National Academy of Sciences. He has a Ph.D. in education from the Stanford University School of Education and degrees in engineering, philosophy, and education policy from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Michael J. Farrell was appointed deputy commissioner for strategic initia- tives in the New York City Police Department in January 2002. In this position, he directs the activities of the Office of Management Analysis and Planning and the Quality Assurance Division. He was first appointed to the New York City Police Department in 1985 as the director of special projects and has since served as assistant commissioner, Office of the First Deputy Commissioner; deputy commissioner for policy development; and as deputy commissioner for policy and planning. From June 1999 to Janu- ary 2002, he served as the deputy director of criminal justice for New York state, providing oversight and coordination of the state's criminal justice agencies. Prior to his tenure with the New York City Police Department, he served on the director's staff at the National Institute of Justice, the research branch of the U.S. Department of Justice. Stephen E. Fienberg is Maurice Falk university professor of statistics and social science in the Department of Statistics, the Machine Learning

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106 USING SCIENCE AS EVIDENCE IN PUBLIC POLICY Department, the Heinz College, and Cylab at Carnegie Mellon Univer- sity. A leader in the development of statistical methods for the analysis of multivariate categorical data, he has also worked on the development of statistical methods for large-scale sample surveys and censuses, such as those carried out by the federal government, and on the interrelationships between sample surveys and randomized experiments. His current research includes technical and policy aspects of privacy and confidentiality and on methods for the analysis of network data. Fienberg has also been active in the application of statistical methods to legal problems and in assessing the appropriateness of statistical testimony in actual legal cases, and he has linked his interests in Bayesian decision making to the issues of legal deci- sion making. He has served on a broad array of National Research Council and Institute of Medicine committees, evaluating scientific evidence arising from the social, behavioral, and biomedical science studies. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the Royal Society of Canada. Fienberg has a Ph.D. in statistics from Harvard University. Sheila S. Jasanoff is Pforzheimer professor of science and technology studies at Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government, where she directs the Program on Science, Technology and Society. Her re- search focuses on the relationship of science and technology to law, politics, and policy in modern democratic societies, with particular emphasis on the role of science in cultures of public participation and public reasoning. She has written and lectured widely on environmental regulation, risk manage- ment, and the politics of the life sciences in the United States, Europe, and India. She has a Ph.D. in linguistics from Harvard University and a J.D. from Harvard Law School. Robert L. Jervis is Adlai E. Stevenson professor of international politics at Columbia University, where he has been a member of the faculty since 1980. He has also taught at the University of California, Los Angeles (1974-1980) and Harvard University (1968-1974). In 2000-2001, he served as the president of the American Political Science Association. Jervis is co-editor of Studies in Security Affairs and a member of numerous editorial review boards for scholarly journals. Most recently, his publica- tions include Why Intelligence Fails (2010), as well as edited volumes and numerous articles in scholarly journals. He has a Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley.

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APPENDIX B 107 Robert E. Litan is director of research for Bloomberg Government. He was previously vice president for research and policy at the Kauffman Founda- tion, where he managed and conducted research relating to entrepreneur- ship, and a senior fellow in the Economic Studies Program at the Brookings Institution. He is the co-author of Better Capitalism (Yale University Press, 2012), Good Capitalism, Bad Capitalism, Economic Growth and Prosperity (2007), and Competitive Equity: Developing a Lower Cost Alternative for Mu- tual Funds (2007). Litan has served on the staff of the Council of Economic Advisers, as deputy assistant attorney general in the Antitrust Division of the Justice Department, and as an associate director of the Office and Management and Budget. He also has been a consultant to the Treasury Department on financial policy issues. He was a member of the Commis- sion on the Causes of the Savings and Loan Crisis. Litan has a B.S. degree in economics (summa cum laude) from the Wharton School Department of Finance at the University of Pennsylvania; a J.D. from Yale Law School; and a Master of Philosophy and a Ph.D. in economics from Yale University. Ann Morning is associate professor of sociology at New York University. Morning publishes and lectures on racial classification and conceptualiza- tion in the United States and abroad, with particular attention to the uses of racial categorization in demography, law, medicine, and genetic research. Her research topics include the historical and contemporary demography of the U.S. multiracial population, racial classification of ethnic groups like Hispanic and South Asian Americans, cross-national comparison of ethnic classification practices on censuses worldwide, scientific and lay concepts of race, and the effect of socially desirable reporting on Americans' expres- sion of biological definitions of race. She has a B.A. (magna cum laude) in economics and political science from Yale University and a Master of In- ternational Affairs from Columbia University's School of International and Public Affairs. She also has an M.A. and Ph.D. in sociology from Princeton University, where she specialized in demography at the Office of Popula- tion Research. Her doctoral dissertation won the American Sociological Association's Dissertation Award in 2005, and was published in 2011 by the University of California Press as The Nature of Race: How Scientists Think and Teach about Human Difference. Robert A. Pollak is Hernreich distinguished professor of economics in the Faculty of Arts and Sciences and the John M. Olin School of Business at Washington University in St. Louis. His research interests include the eco-

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108 USING SCIENCE AS EVIDENCE IN PUBLIC POLICY nomics of the family, price and cost-of-living indexes, and environmental policy. At the National Research Council, he served on the Committee on National Statistics panel on cost-of-living indexes. From 1997 to 2007, Pollak co-chaired the MacArthur Foundation Network on the Family and the Economy, an interdisciplinary group of economists, sociologists, and developmental psychologists studying the functioning of families. He has a Ph.D. in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Melissa Lee Sands is a Ph.D. student in government at Harvard University, where she studies American politics and quantitative methodology. She holds a Master of Public Administration from Columbia University's School of International and Public Affairs, where she concentrated in advanced policy and economic analysis, and a B.A. in sociology from the University of WisconsinMadison. She has held an associate faculty appointment at SIPA and has worked for public officials in Wisconsin and for nonprofit organizations in Madison, Wisconsin; New York City; and Lagos, Nigeria. Stephen H. Schneider (deceased July 2010) was the Melvin and Joan Lane professor for interdisciplinary environmental studies, professor in the Department of Biology, and a senior fellow in the Woods Institute for the Environment at Stanford University. He was also a professor by courtesy in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. He served as a research scientist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research from 1973 to 1996, where he co-founded the Climate Project. He focused on climate change science, integrated assessment of ecological and economic impacts of human-induced climate change, and identifying viable climate policies and technological solutions. He consulted for federal agencies and White House staff in six administrations. Involved with the Intergovern- mental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) since 1988, he was coordinating lead author of Working Group II for Chapter 19, "Assessing Key Vulner- abilities and the Risk from Climate Change," and a core writer for the Fourth Assessment Synthesis Report. He, along with four generations of IPCC authors, received a collective Nobel Peace Prize in 2007. Elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 2002, Schneider received the Ameri- can Association for the Advancement of Science/Westinghouse Award for Public Understanding of Science and Technology and a MacArthur Fellow- ship for integrating and interpreting the results of global climate research. Founder and editor of Climatic Change, he authored or co-authored many

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APPENDIX B 109 books, scientific papers, proceedings, legislative testimonies, edited books and chapters, reviews, and editorials. Thomas A. Schwandt is professor in the Department of Educational Psychology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Previously he was a faculty member in the School of Education at Indiana University, where he was also a fellow in the university's Poynter Center for the Study of Ethics and American Institutions. He has also held a faculty appoint- ment in medical education at the University of Illinois at Chicago Medical School. He is the author of Evaluation Practice Reconsidered (2004) and The Dictionary of Qualitative Inquiry (1997, 2001, 2007), among others. In addition, he has authored many papers and chapters on issues in the theory of evaluation and interpretive methodologies. In 2002, he received the Paul F. Lazarsfeld Award from the American Evaluation Association for his contributions to evaluation theory. Schwandt has a Ph.D. in inquiry methodology from Indiana University, Bloomington. Miron L. Straf (Study Director) is deputy director of the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education at the National Research Council. Previously, he served as director of the division's Committee on National Statistics and was at the National Science Foundation, where he worked on developing the research priority area for the social, behavioral, and economic sciences. He was on the faculty of the University of Califor- nia, Berkeley, and the London School of Economics and Political Science, and was president of the American Statistical Association. He received the American Association of Public Opinion Research's Innovators Award for his work on cognitive aspects of survey methodology. His major research interests are government statistics and the use of statistics and research for public policy decision making. He has a Ph.D. in statistics from the Uni- versity of Chicago. Sidney Verba is Carl H. Pforzheimer university professor emeritus in the Department of Government at Harvard University and director emeritus of the Harvard University Library. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the American Philosophical Society, and president emeritus of the American Political Science Association (APSA). He has received numerous APSA awards, including the Krammerer Prize, the Woodrow Wilson Prize, and

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110 USING SCIENCE AS EVIDENCE IN PUBLIC POLICY the James Madison Prize, APSA's highest prize awarded every 3 years for a career contribution to political science. In 2002, he was awarded the Johan Skytte Prize, the major international prize in political science. He received a Ph.D. from Princeton University in 1959.