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Index

cth

A

Abbott, Donald P., 54

Achaete-scute complex, 65-66

Acid sensitivity channels, 34

Acoela, 49-50, 52-53

Acoustic signaling

call duration, frequency, and amplitude, 175, 179, 180, 181, 188, 189

central pattern generators, 175, 178-185

comparative studies, 175, 177-178, 182

coupling of pectoral–gestural circuitry, 150, 175, 176, 177, 188, 190, 191

coupling of sound production and respiration, 181

evolutionary origins, 150, 175, 176, 177, 181-187

fishes, 150, 175-191

hotspots for novel pattern generators, 178

musculature and central mechanisms, 182-185

pectoral appendage circuitry, 175, 185-188, 190

rhombomere-8 spinal compartment, 175, 178, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186-187, 188-190

shared origins, 182-185, 187-190

social context-dependent, 181-182

sonic–vocal pattern generator, 175, 176, 177, 178-185, 187-188, 190, 191

tetrapods, 150, 175, 176, 177, 181-182, 184, 186, 187, 188, 190, 191

taxonomic analysis, 182

vocal circuitry, 187-188, 189

Acropora millepora, 5 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 16

Actinopterygian fishes, 36, 176, 182, 184, 185, 186

Action potentials, 1, 22, 31, 168, 169, 170, 242

Adherens junction, 11

Agnathans, 27, 44, 176, 177

Alaama, Roula A., 57-58, 75-90

Ambulacraria, 50

Ammon’s horn, 218

Amniotes, 21, 28, 29

Amphimedon queenslandica, 4, 5, 6, 8, 11, 14, 15, 16

Amygdala, 193, 197, 212

Anemones, 24, 26

Annelids, 2, 39, 43, 44, 48, 49, 51, 54, 226

Anomalocaris, 40, 43, 44

Apical-basal polarity genes, 11

Aplysia, 163, 171, 172

Apteronotidae, 31

Arboreomorphs, 41

Arcila, Mary Luz, 1, 3-19

Arkarua, 39, 40



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Index A sonic–vocal pattern generator, 175, 176, 177, 178-185, 187-188, 190, 191 Abbott, Donald P., 54 tetrapods, 150, 175, 176, 177, 181-182, Achaete-scute complex, 65-66 184, 186, 187, 188, 190, 191 Acid sensitivity channels, 34 taxonomic analysis, 182 Acoela, 49-50, 52-53 vocal circuitry, 187-188, 189 Acoustic signaling Acropora millepora, 5 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 16 call duration, frequency, and amplitude, Actinopterygian fishes, 36, 176, 182, 184, 175, 179, 180, 181, 188, 189 185, 186 central pattern generators, 175, 178-185 Action potentials, 1, 22, 31, 168, 169, 170, comparative studies, 175, 177-178, 182 242 coupling of pectoral–gestural circuitry, Adherens junction, 11 150, 175, 176, 177, 188, 190, 191 Agnathans, 27, 44, 176, 177 coupling of sound production and Alaama, Roula A., 57-58, 75-90 respiration, 181 Ambulacraria, 50 evolutionary origins, 150, 175, 176, 177, Ammon’s horn, 218 181-187 Amniotes, 21, 28, 29 fishes, 150, 175-191 Amphimedon queenslandica, 4, 5, 6, 8, 11, 14, hotspots for novel pattern generators, 15, 16 178 Amygdala, 193, 197, 212 musculature and central mechanisms, Anemones, 24, 26 182-185 Annelids, 2, 39, 43, 44, 48, 49, 51, 54, 226 pectoral appendage circuitry, 175, 185- Anomalocaris, 40, 43, 44 188, 190 Apical-basal polarity genes, 11 rhombomere-8 spinal compartment, Aplysia, 163, 171, 172 175, 178, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186-187, Apteronotidae, 31 188-190 Arboreomorphs, 41 shared origins, 182-185, 187-190 Arcila, Mary Luz, 1, 3-19 social context-dependent, 181-182 Arkarua, 39, 40 397

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398  / Index Armina, 156, 158, 171 targeting, 71 Arms races, 36, 42, 227 termination patterns, 121 Aromatase (ARO), 193, 195, 197, 203, 207, tracing, xvi, 67, 68, 256 209 Ayala, Francisco J., xiii-xiv Arthropods (see also Bilaterians) Aysheaia, 40, 44 appendage morphology, 63-65 body plans, 62-63 brains, 2, 49, 51, 54 B Cambrian explosion, 42, 43 Bacteria homologous structures, 66, 72-74 toxins, 32 Hox genes, 57, 62, 63, 65, 68-70, 71, 74 voltage-gated ion channels, 22, 23-24 motor circuits, 69, 70-72 Barn owls, 244 nervous system specialization, 2, 54, 57, Barrett, H. Clark, 252, 313-333 61-74 Bass, Andrew H., 149-150, 175-191 neurogenesis, 61, 65-67, 70-72 Bassett, Danielle S., 1, 3-19 olfaction, 213, 216, 225-226 Bats outgroup analysis, 48 behavior, 111 segmental neuromeres, 61, 67-70 cognitive mapping, 222 segmentation network, 62, 67 cortical organization, 106, 111, 222, 235 stem, 39, 44 echolocating, 109, 221, 222, 223, 263 Arthur M. Sackler Colloquia, iv, viii, xiii, xv FOXP2 sequences, 263 Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of Asian Art, viii limb morphology, 97-98, 106, 110-111 Ascidians, 27 olfaction, 220, 221, 222-223, 226 Associative learning, 227 touch domes, 98, 109, 110-111 Auditory acuity, 244 wing, 97-98, 110 Auditory cortex Behavior (see also Acoustic signaling; classic columns, 119 Foraging behavior; Nudipleura cross-species modifications, 95, 119 swimming behavior; Sparrow extrinsic factors affecting phenotypic seasonal sociality) variability, 107, 110 cortical phenotype and, 103, 105 homologies, 93, 94, 95 neural basis for, 154 Australopithecus, 147 neuroendocrinology, 103 Avalon assemblage, 41 social affiliation, 206 Avise, John C., xiii-xiv tongue licking, 189 Axons β-catenin, 76 arborizations, 71, 138 Bichirs (Polypteriformes), 36, 184 conduction velocity, 27 Bilaterians cortical connectivity, 138-139 anterior posterior patterning, 47, 48, 49, diameter, 139 53, 54 evolution of centralized nervous brain evolution, 47-48, 49, 50, 51, 54, systems, 51 226, 227 genesis, 68 Cambrian explosion, 42, 43 Hox gene regulation, 71, 72 central neural characters, 49, 50, 51-52 lateral geniculate, 121 clades, 49-50 length, 139, 265 dorsoventral patterning, 47, 48, 53, 72 of motor neurons, 31, 70, 71, 72, 169, Ediacaran, 37, 39-40, 41, 47, 53, 226-227 183, 185-186, 187 genetic basis of body plan, 47-48, 53, 62 myelinated/myelination, 2, 21, 27, 101, Hox genes, 62 233, 276, 277 last common ancestor, 2, 24, 37, 38, 50, Nav clusters at initial segments, 2, 21, 51, 53-54 27, 31 locomotory, 41 olfactory, 213

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Index / 399 origin and divergence, 37, 47, 53, 236 cortical expansion, gyrification, and stem, 53 connectivity, 138-140 synaptic gene networks, 5, 6, 7, 9, 14, glia/neuron ratio, 141-144 15, 53 human, xv, 127, 134-135 tripartite brain hypothesis, 37, 54 independent evolution of large brains, Vernanimalcula fossils, 39 130, 131 voltage-gated ion channels, 22, 24, 25, and language, xv 26, 35 mammalian order and, 128, 129, 130, Biodiversity, defined, xiii 132, 138 Birds (see also Songbirds; Sparrow seasonal neuronal scaling rules, 130-132 134-135, sociality) 140, 141, 142, 145 FOXP2 orthologs, 263 nonneuronal cells, 132-136, 140, 142 hindbrain segmentation, 178 primates, 128, 129, 132, 134-135, 136, olfaction, 219, 223-224 137, 138, 139, 140, 141 telencephalon, 76 relative size of structures, 136-138, 150, vocal circuitry, 178, 184, 190 223 vocal–respiratory coupling, 181 shared scaling rules, 132-138 Blind mole rats, 58, 93, 107 Broca’s area, 190, 251, 260, 261 Bonobos, 254, 255, 328 Bruce, Heather S., 57, 61-74 Bornella anguilla, 158, 162 Burgess Shale biota. 40, 42, 43, 44 Bowerbirds, 92 Burgessochaeta, 40, 43 Bowfin, 184 Brachiopods, 42, 43, 44 Brain (see also Human brain; individual C structures) Caddis flies (Limnephilus flavastellus), 34 “basic uniformity” concept, 257 Caenorhabditis elegans, 5, 6, 8, 16, 213 bilaterian evolution, 47-48, 49, 50, 51, Cajal–Retzius cells, 86 54, 226, 227 Calcium (Ca2+) ion channels, 1, 21, 22, 23, defined, 51 24, 28, 32 early vertebrate, 44 California newts (Taricha torosa), 33 descent with modification, 318-319 Cambrian explosion, 42-44 developmental effects on specialization, Canadaspis, 40, 43 316-321 Cantlon, Jessica F., 252, 293-311 energy cost, 59, 127, 142, 144, 146, 148, Canton, Richard, xvi 270 Capuchin monkeys, 129 independent evolution, 51, 52, 99, 130 Capybara, 129 mammalian radiation, 131 Caribbean spiny lobsters, 226 methodological advances, xvi, 130, 256, Carnivores, 94, 118, 119, 122, 220, 221, 225, 257 263 ontogenic tuning and module Castor gene, 68 spawning, 317-318 Catania, Kenneth C., 151, 229-249 reaction norms, 316-317, 318-319 Catarrhines, 274 small-world networks, 138-139 Catfish, 177, 187, 188 tripartite brain hypothesis, 37, 47, 48, Cathaymyrus, 43 49, 53, 54 Cats, 101, 119, 124 Brain size (see also individual structures and Caudal hindbrain, 175, 176, 178, 179, 180, areas) 181, 182, 183, 184, 187 body size and, 144-146, 147, 257 Cebus monkeys, 99 cell cycle exit delay and, 75, 76, 79 Cell cycle exit, 75, 76, 79 and cognitive ability, 59, 128-129, 138, Cell lineage tracing, 66 140, 141, 326-328 Centipedes, 66, 73 coordination among areas, 58

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400  / Index Central pattern generators (CPGs) Charniodiscus, 39, 40 sonic–vocal, 175, 176, 177, 178-185, 187- Charvet, Christine J., 57-58, 75-90 188, 190, 191 Chelicerates, 66, 67, 73 swimming behavior, 153, 166, 167-169, Chengjiang biota, 42, 43, 44 170, 171, 172, 173 Cheungkongella, 43 vocalization, 175 Chick optic tectum Centralized nervous system evolution (see caudomedial, 75, 76, 84, 85 also Brain; other specific structures) cell cycle exit, 75, 76, 79 Cambrian explosion, 42-44 FGF2 effects, 57-58, 75-90 cephalic neural ganglia, 2, 51, 52, 54 folding, 57-58, 75, 76, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, cladistic analysis, 44-46, 47, 49-50 90 comparative approaches, 37, 44-53 laminar disruptions, 58, 75, 76, 77, 81, diffuse nerve nets, 2, 7, 37, 48, 50-52, 82, 83, 84, 85, 88 53-54 mantle zone, 79 Ediacaran biota, 37, 39-40, 41, 47, 53 persistence of FGF2-induced alterations, fossil record, 38-44, 46, 53 79 genetic basis of bilaterian body plan, pia mater thinning/holes, 58, 75, 76, 77, 47-48 80, 81, 83, 86-87, 88 last common bilaterian ancestor, 37, proliferative zone fraction (PZF), 78, 79, 53-54 85, 89 molecular clock hypothesis, 37, 38, radial thickness, 78-80 46-47, 53 ventricular surface area, 78-79, 80, 81 outgroup analysis of metazoan central volume, 77, 80 neural characters, 37, 45-46, 47-48, Chimpanzees, 94, 128, 129, 130, 141, 142, 49-53, 54 145, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258-259, phenetics, 44, 45, 46 261, 262, 266, 268, 270, 328, 330, 332 subepidermal nerve plexuses, 50-51 Chiropterans, 222, 223 (see also Bats) tripartite brain hypothesis, 37, 47, 48, Choanoflagellates, 5, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26, 35 49, 53, 54 Chondrichthyes, 176, 186 Cephalochordates, 43-44, 51 Chordates Cephalopods, 51, 52, 54 brains, 2, 43, 47-48, 49, 54 Cephalopyge trematoides, 157 fossil record, 43 Cerebellum, 51, 84, 122, 130, 132, 133, 135, Nav channels, 21, 27, 29 136-138, 140, 143, 148, 178, 182, 185, Circadian functions, 93 189, 190, 260, 261, 262, 264, 265 Cladistic analysis, centralized nervous Cerebral cortex system, 44-46, 47, 49-50 comparative studies, 128, 132, 136, 137, Cladobranchia, 155, 156, 158-159, 163, 164, 138, 139 165, 166 expansion, gyrification, and Clark University, vii connectivity, 128, 138-140 Clione limacine, 163, 171 human, 127, 128, 134-135, 140 Cloudina, 41 number of neurons, 128, 132, 133, 134- Club-winged manakin, 177, 190 135, 140 Cnidarians, 5, 6, 7, 14, 22, 24, 26, 39, 41-42, nonneuronal cells, 133, 134-135, 140 49, 51 shared scaling rules, 134-138 Coast mole (Scapanus orarius), 241 size comparisons, 128, 132, 136, 137, Coelacanth, 176, 186 138, 139 Cognitive ability (see also Computational Cerebrospinal fluid, 75-76, 86, 87 ability; Language; Numerical Cerebrum, 51 cognition; Speech) Cetaceans, 128, 130, 141, 263 brain size and, 59, 128-129, 138, 140, Chagnaud, Boris P., 149-150, 175-191 141, 326-328 Charnia, 41 developmental processes and, 316-321

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Index / 401 “dual system” view, 315 D duplication and divergence of new structures, 323-324 Danio rerio, 5, 6-7, 8, 16 energy cost, 144 Dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), 193-194, evolutionary feedback processes, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 324-325 206, 207, 209 explaining, 328-331 Darwin, Charles, xv, xvi, 59, 92, 154, 230, genes, gene regulation, and human 241, 256-257 environments and, 329-330 Deer mice, 103-104 modified orthologies and, 330 Degnan, Bernard M., 1, 3-19 number of cortical neurons and, 129, Degnan, Sandie M., 1, 3-19 140, 141 Delta-Notch signaling, 65-66 origin of new specializations, 321-328 Dendronotida, 155, 158, 163, 164, 165, 166 paralogies and, 330-331 Dendronotus iris, 153, 158, 161, 162, 166, 169, psychological testing, 320-321 170, 171, 172, 173 reaction norms and, 316-317, 318-319 Dentate gyrus, 217, 218, 222 spatial navigation, 313 Deuterostomes, 43, 44, 48, 49, 50, 51-52, word perception, 325-326 211, 227 Cognitive mapping, 213-218, 219, 222, 226, Devonian extinction, 21, 35 227, 316 Dickinsonia, 39, 40, 53 Common garter snake (Thamnopis sirtalis), Diencephalon-tegmentum, 77 33 Dinomischus, 40, 44 Comparative studies Dobzhansky, Theodosius, xiii, xiv acoustic signaling, 175, 177-178, 182 Dolphins centralized nervous systems, 37, 44-53 echolocation, 221, 263 cerebral cortex, 128, 132, 136, 137, 138, pectoral fin, 97, 98 139 Doridacea, 155, 156, 160, 163, 164, 165, 166 FOXP2 gene, 262-264 Doushantuo Formation, 39, 53 genomics, 253, 258-266 Drosophila molecular biology, 254-256 D. melanogaster, 5, 6, 8, 16, 62, 213 neurobiological investigations, 256-257 decapentapelgic (dpp) gene, 48 neuroethological studies, 336 embryogenesis, 62, 63, 68 olfaction, 220 gooseberry (gsb) gene, 73 psychological, 258 Hox genes, 62, 63, 65, 70, 71, 72 Complexity, organismal, 15, 37, 38 insecticide resistance, 35 Computational ability (see also Numerical motor neurons, 71 cognition) Nav channel genes, 28, 35 Nav ion channels and, 21, 31, 35-36 neurogenesis, 65, 67, 70, 72-74 Conaco, Cecilia, 1, 3-19 olfaction, 213 Convergent evolution, 2, 107, 213 segmentation, 62, 63, 68 Coral (see also Acropora millepora), 26 short gastrulation (sog) gene, 48 Corpus callosum, 120 Duck-billed platypus, 94, 95, 96-97, 99 Corticopontine system, 138 Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), 193, 195, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 203, E 206, 208, 209 Eastern moles (Scalopus aquaticus), 236, 239 Croaking gouramis, 187 Eastern towhees (Pipilo erythropthalmus), Crustaceans, 43, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 72-73, 74, 193-194, 195-196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 213, 214, 216, 319, 320 201, 202, 206, 209 Cryogenian Period, 47 Ecdysozoans, 48, 49, 51 Ctenophores, 22, 49 Echinoderms, 39, 43, 44, 49, 68 Cupiennius, 73

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402  / Index Echolocation, 109, 221, 222, 223, 263 Fire, 147 Ectoderm, 48, 61, 62, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 71, Fishes 73, 74, 108 acoustic signaling, 150, 175-191 Ediacaran biota caudal hindbrain rhombomere-8 spinal bilaterians, 37, 39-40, 41, 47, 53, 226-227 compartment, 175, 188-190 centralized nervous system escape response, 229, 230, 244-247 development, 37, 39-40, 41, 47, 53 FOXP2 orthologs, 262-263 fossil record, 39-42 pectoral appendage, 97, 98, 150, 175, morphological complexity, 39-41 176, 177, 178, 179, 181, 184, 185-188, phylogeny, 41-42 190, 191 Egyptian fruit bats, 222 sonic mechanisms, 178-181 Eimer’s organs, 231, 232, 233, 239, 240, 241, swim bladder, 177, 178-179, 184, 187-188 243 Flabellina, 156, 158, 171 Elasmobranchs, 36, 176 Flatworms, 39, 49, 50, 51, 52 Eldonia, 40, 43 Foraging behavior (see also Star-nosed Electric fish, 21-22, 30, 31-32, 36, 188 moles; Tentacled snakes) Elephants, 128, 141, 263 optimal foraging theory, 151, 229, 230, Energy 235, 238, 239 content of foods, 147, 227 FOXP2 gene cost of brains, 59, 127, 142, 144, 146, 148, comparative genomics, 253, 262-264 270 discovery, 259-261 efficiency adaptations, 21-22, 31, 35-36, expression and sequencing studies, 236-237, 239, 269-270 262-264 genes for aerobic metabolism, 269-270 in human evolution, 253, 261-262, Nav channels and, 21-22, 31, 35-36 264-265 profitability of prey, 151, 229, 230, 235, mouse model of human evolution, 238, 239 264-265 Enteropneust hemichordates, 43, 48, 51 mouse model of R552H substitution, Entoprocts, 44, 52 264 Eoporpita, 39, 40 and phenotype, 26-270 Epithelial gene networks, 6, 11-12, 15 regulation of gene expression by, 265-266 Erniettomorphs, 41 Freise, Amanda C., 57-58, 75-90 Euarchontoglires, 114 Frogs Euctenidiacea, 155, 156, 160-161 optic tectum, 58, 124 Eulipotyphla, 133, 136 vocalizations, 177, 181, 184 Fugu, 33 F G Feeding appendages, 74 Galagos, 121, 123 cooked foods, 147, 148 Ganglia, 2, 50-51, 52, 54, 67, 68, 260-261, Ferrets, 107 262, 265 FGF2 Ganglion mother cells, 66, 68 and cell cycle rate, 85 Garter snake–newt system, 33-34 effects on chick optic tectum, 57-58, 75-90 Gastropods, 51, 52, 153, 154, 155, 157 lamination, folding, and pial integrity Gene expression networks changes, 79-84 bilaterian body plans, 47-48, 62-63 and neurogenesis, 76, 85, 87, 89 conserved, 3, 4, 11, 14, 54, 61, 62, 65, 73, persistence of alterations, 79 74, 104, 106, 142, 225-226 and tectal progenitor pool, 77-79 coregulation and modality analysis, 3, Field sparrows (Spizella pusilla), 193, 195-210 7, 9, 10, 11-12, 13, 14, 15, 16-17, 18-19

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Index / 403 correlation in eumetazoans, 7, 9, 15 Homing pigeons, 219, 224 epithelial, 6, 11-12, 15 Homo antecessor, 147 nuclear pore complex, 4, 6, 8, 11, 12, 13, Homo erectus, 147 15, 17, 19 Homo heidelbergensis, 147 and organismal complexity, 15 Homo neanderthalensis, 147 proteasome 26S, 4, 6, 8, 11-12, 13, 15, Homo rudolfensis, 147 18-19 Homologies scale-free growth, 15 arthropod neurogenesis, 66, 72-74 synaptic, 4-10, 11-12 auditory cortex, 93, 94, 95 within-species variability, 104 bilaterian body plans, 48 Gestural signaling or communication, 150, brain structures, 66, 72-74, 93, 321-323 175, 176, 177, 190, 191, 273, 288, 289, peripheral morphology variations in 290, 291, 331 homologous body parts, 97-98 Ghost bats, 94 cortical fields, 93-94 Glia/neuron ratio, 141-144 and development or function of Glial cells, 59, 66, 68, 69 82, 85, 86, 87-88, nonhomologous structures, 1 127, 136, 140, 141-142, 144 in gene expression patterns, 2, 335-336 Glires, 133, 134-135 in human synaptic complex, 5 Gnathostomes, 21, 27, 176, 177 independent evolution distinguished Gogia, 40, 43 from, xvi-xvii Goldfish, 189, 225 neurogenesis, 66, 72-74 Golgi staining, xvi Nudipleura swimming neurons, 149, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRh), 153, 154-155, 164, 166, 167, 168, 169- 103 172, 173-174 Goodson, James L., 150, 150, 193-210 somatosensory areas, 93, 94 Gorillas, xvi, 129, 130, 141, 144-146, 190, speech in primates, 330 254, 261 Honeybees, 226 Gould, Stephen Jay, 256 Horses, 128 Grasshoppers, 67, 73 Hox genes grim gene, 70, 71 abdominal A (abd-A), 69, 70 Gunaratne, Charuni A., 149, 153-174 abdominal B (Abd-B), 69, 71, 72 Antp, 63, 69, 70, 72 and apoptosis, 70 H and appendage morphology, 57, 62, 63, 65, 71, 74, 106, 322-323 Hagfishes, 43, 44 bilaterian body plan, 47, 57, 62 Haikouella, 43 cofactors, 71 Haikouichthys, 44 locomotion, 70 Hallucigenia, 40, 44 and neural morphology, 57, 65, 68-72, Harvard University, vii-viii 185 Heater muscles, 32 Pb, 71, 72 Hebbian plasticity, 58 Scr, 71 Hemichordates, 43, 48, 51 transcription factors, 62 Herculano-Houzel, Suzana, 58-59, 127-148 Ultrabithorax (Ubx), 63, 64, 65, 69, 70 71, Hermissenda, 156, 158, 171 72 Hexabranchus sanguineus, 160, 162 and vertebrate forelimb development, Hindbrain (see Caudal hindbrain) 106, 322-323 Hippocampus, 150, 211, 212, 216, 218, 219, Huang, Johnny C., 57-58, 75-90 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 226, 228 Human brain Hitzig, Eduard, xvi cerebral cortex, 127, 128, 134-135, 140 Homeobox gene superfamily, 47, 48, 106 cognitive advantage, 140-141 (see also Hox genes) encephalization quotient, 128-129

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404  / Index energy cost, 127, 128, 144-147 Ion channels, 22 (see also Calcium ion FOXP2 gene, 253, 258-266 channels; Potassium leak and hierarchical model of specialization, voltage-grated ion channels; 313-333 Voltage-gated sodium channels) homologous traits, 321-323 bilaterians, 22, 24, 25, 26, 35 ideological obstacles to study, 256-257 6TM gene family, 22-26, 28 as outlier, xv, 127, 128-129, 130, 140, 141, and sound production, 32 147-148 types, 24 psychological studies, 258 quantification of numbers of cells, 127, 140 J as scaled-up primate brain, 127-128, Jacobs, Lucia F., 150-151, 211-228 140-141 Jarvis, Erin, 57, 61-74 size, xv, 127, 134-135, 257 Jellyfish (medusazoa), 24, 26, 35 vocal–gestural coupling, 190 Jerboas (Jaculus orientalis), 208 Human hand, 97 Human specializations chimpanzee-bonobo evolution and, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258-259, 261, 262, K 266, 268, 270 Kaas, Jon H., 58, 113-125 comparative molecular and genetic Katz, Paul S., 149, 153-174 background, 254-256 Kimberella, 40, 41, 53 evolutionary continuity and, 256-257 Kimberellomorpha, 41 neurobiological and behavioral Kosik, Kenneth S., 1, 3-19 background, 256-258 Krubitzer, Leah A., 58, 91-111 Hunchback gene, 68 Kruppel gene, 68 Huxley, T. H., xv-xvi, 59, 256-57 Hypothalamus, 194, 197, 203, 207-208, 262 L I Lagerstätten, 38, 42, 44 Lagomorphs, 114, 117 Independent evolution, xvi-xvii, 51, 52, 99, Lampreys, 27, 28, 44 113, 124-125 Language (see also Speech) large brains, 130, 131 ape-language projects, 258 Inferior olive, 178, 182, 185, 188-189, 262 auditory and visual integration, 251, Insectivores, 132, 135, 136, 137, 220, 221, 274, 278, 279, 283, 285, 288-291 236, 238 brain areas, 251, 261, 273-274, 276, 278, Insects 279, 283, 285, 289, 325-326, 330-331 motor circuits, 71 brain size and, xv NAV channels, 2, 35, 36 developmental processes and, 316, 318- neurogenesis, 65, 66, 67 319, 332 olfactory system, 213, 216, 226 evolution from generalized precursors, resistance to pesticides, 35, 36 324, 330 similarities with vertebrate and annelid genes, 111, 251, 253, 259, 260, 261, 262, nervous systems, 2, 72-74 267 Interneurons, 31, 68, 70, 167-168, 172, 173 reaction norms and, 323 Inversion hypothesis, 48 and runaway evolutionary processes, Invertebrates 325 Nav channels, 21, 25, 26, 27-28, 33, 34, and symbolic math, 252 35 vocal vs. gestural origins, 190 word perception, 325-326

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Index / 405 Lateral geniculate, 94, 103, 120-121 Millipedes, 66 Lateral septum, 193, 194, 197, 205-206, 208 Molecular clock, 37, 38, 46-47, 53, 226 Latimeria, 176, 186 Moles, 231 (see also Star-nosed moles) Lillvis, Joshua L., 149, 153-174 Molluscs, 39, 44 Lingulella, 40, 43 central neural characters, 2, 49, 51, 52, Lithobius, 73 53, 54 Lobopods, 44 olfactory system, 213 Locomotion swimming behaviors, 153, 154 appendages, 74, 97, 175 Monoplacophorians, 52 behavior (see also Nudipleura Monosiga brevicollis, 5, 25 swimming behavior) Motor cortex, 99, 101, 102, 105-106, 111, 113, bilateria, 41 115, 122-123, 190, 317 coupling of vocal circuitry, 175 Motor neurons crawling, 155, 157 apoptosis, 70, 71 mucociliary, 155, 157 arthropods, 69, 70, 71 Lophotrochozoans, 44 axons, 31, 70, 71, 72, 169, 183, 185-186, Lungfish, 31, 36, 176, 185, 186 187 Luteinizing hormone, 103, 194 genesis, 68, 71 and hand morphology, 99 Hox gene regulation, 57, 69, 70, 71-72 M locomotion, 69, 70, 71, 171-172, 185-186, 187, 188, 190 Macaque monkeys, 94, 99, 101, 102, 116, mapping, 185-186 117, 120, 121, 123-124, 190, 251, 254, ventral horn, 99 255, 257, 261, 262, 270, 273, 274, 275, vertebrates, 71-72 276, 277, 281, 283, 285, 286, 289, 290, vocal and sonic, 149, 150, 177, 181, 182, 291, 184, 187 Malacostracans, 66 Myelin/myelination, 2, 21, 27, 101, 233, Mammals 276, 277 acoustic communication, 181, 190 Myllokunmingia, 44 brain relationships across orders, 128, Myriapods, 66, 67 72-73 129, 130, 132, 138 Mysids, 65 cell cycle exit, 76 321 cortical evolution in, 75, 76, 88, 91-111 neocortical folding, 88 N outgroup analysis, 48 sonic pectoral signaling, 190 Naked mole rats (Heterocephalus glaber), 22, Marble crayfish, 64 34, 36 Marrella, 40, 43 Nama assemblage, 41 Mathematics (see Numerical cognition) Namacalathus, 41 Maxillipeds, 63-84, 65 Naraoia, 40, 43 McGowan, Luke D., 57-58, 75-90 Natural selection, xv, 77, 91, 92, 100, 124, Megabats, 220 230, 241, 252, 314, 316, 325, 326, 327 Melibe leonina, 153, 155, 157, 159, 161-162, Navigation 166, 167, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173 echolocation, 109, 221, 222, 223, 263 Mesoderm, 62, 65, 176-177 evolution of, 226-227 Mesolimbic dopamine system, 206 olfactory, 150, 211, 212, 213, 214-217, Mesotocin, 193, 194, 195, 197, 198, 199, 200, 218-220, 222, 223-224, 225, 226-227, 201, 203, 206, 208, 209 228 Midbrain, 51, 85, 88, 179, 180, 194, 208 spatial, 211, 212, 213, 218, 219, 220, 314 Midshipman fish, 177, 179, 180, 181, 182, telencephalon, 225 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 189 visual, 220

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406  / Index Nematodes, 3, 6, 28, 49, 213 Neuroblasts (neural stem cells), 66, 67-70, Nemertodermatida, 49, 50 72-73 Neocortex (see also Visual cortex) Neurogenesis activity-dependent selection, 124-125 arthropods, 61, 65-67, 70-72 areas (specialized regions), 93-95, 99, Drosophila, 65, 67, 70, 72-74 101, 102, 113, 114 FGF2 and, 76, 85, 87, 89 bats, 106, 111 homologies, 66, 72-74 cell cycle exit, 76, 79 telencephalic, 21, 35, 76, 85, 89 classic columns, 113, 116-118, 124-125 proliferative zone fraction (PZF), 77, 79, connectional studies, 101 85, 89 cross-species phenotypic variability, timing, 79 93-100, 121 Neurons (see also Motor neurons) development of functional organization, auditory cortex, 119 124-125 energy cost, 142-144 domains, 94-95 113, 122-124 giant Mauthner cells, 244 extrinsic factors affecting phenotypic isotropic fractionator enumeration variability, 95, 107-110 method, 59, 130, 132 folding, 88 neocortex minicolumns, 114-115, 116, genetic basis of phenotypic variability, 117-119 92, 93, 104-107, 111 number, 76, 101, 103, 130-132 homologies, 93 orientation-selective, 118-119 human, 114 premotor, 149, 175, 176, 178, 182, 188, mammalian phylogenetic relationships, 189, 190, 191 94 scaling rules for brain size, 130-132 134- mice, 88, 101, 103-104, 106, 107, 120 135, 140, 141, 142, 145 minicolumns, 58, 113, 114-125 somatotopic maps, 119 modules, 58, 101, 114, 118-121, 124-125 visual cortex, 116, 117-119 olfactory perception, 213-214 vocal pacemaker, 179, 180-181, 182, 183, phenotypic variability in mammals, 184, 188 91-111 Neurotransmitters, 22, 68, 265 pia matter, 77 Neutral theory of molecular evolution, 46 position-dependent selection, 124-125 New World monkeys, 94, 99, 120, 121, 123, primates, 76, 100, 101-103, 113-125 274, 283 progenitor proliferation, 88 New York University, vii rats, 76, 119-120 Newcomb, James M., 149, 153-174 representations of stimulus orientations, Newts, 22, 36 (see also Garter snake–newt 118-119 system) separated parts of sensory surfaces, Nodes of Ranvier, 2, 21, 27 119-121 Northcutt, R. Glenn, 2, 37-55 septa, 113, 120, 197, 198, 208, 233 Notochord, 43 size/organization/connectivity of fields, Nuclear pore complex, 4, 6, 8, 11, 12, 13, 94-95, 100, 105-106, 107, 111, 114 15, 17, 19 somatotopic organization, 58, 101, 119- Nudipleura 120, 122-123 locomotor behavior categories, 155-163 star-nosed moles, 235, 248 phylogeny, 153, 156-157, 163 sulcal patterns, 100 Nudipleura swimming behavior unbounded columns, 58, 113, 118-119 asymmetric undulation (AU), 156, 157, volume and neuron number, 76, 136 161, 163 within-species phenotypic variability, breaststroke (BS), 156, 157, 158, 163, 100-104, 121 164 Network theory, 1, 3-19 central pattern generators (CPGs), 153, Neural tube, 51, 54 166, 167-169, 170, 171, 172, 173

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Index / 407 dorsal–ventral body flexions, 153, 156, cognitive maping, 213-218, 219, 222, 226 157, 158-161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, comparative studies, 220 167, 168, 169-172, 173 convergence in system structure and dorsal–ventral undulation (DU), 156, function, 212-213 157, 162-163, 165 discrimination and acuity function, 211, escape response, 161, 163 213, 218, 219 evolution of neural circuits and, 149, evolutionary origin, 213-214, 223, 154, 164-166 226-227 flapping (F), 157, 161, 163, 172, 173 feeding behavior and, 150-151 homologous neurons, 149, 153, 154-155, fish, 216, 225 164, 166, 167, 168, 169-172, 173-174 genes, 213, 219, 225 homoplasy, 153, 154, 164, 166, 173 hippocampus and, 150, 211, 212, 216, left–right (LR) body flexions, 153, 156, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 226, 157, 158-161, 162, 163, 164, 165-166, 228 167-169, 170, 171, 172, 173 mammals, 216, 217, 218, 219-220, left–right undulation (LU), 156, 157, 221-223 158, 159, 162, 163 mechanosensory systems integration, neural circuits, 166-172 216, 218, 226 phylogenetic distribution, 163 navigation function, 150, 211, 212, 213, taxonomy, 158-161 214-217, 218-220, 222, 223-224, 225, Numerical cognition 226-227, 228 amodal representations, 307 parallel map theory, 216-218, 219 analog representations as sole predatory strategy and, 220-223, 225 precursors of, 302-306 rats, 219, 220 analogical reasoning, 307 reptiles, 224-225 arithmentic, 299-301 size of olfactory bulb, 150-151, 211, 212, automatic cross-activation, 307-308 213, 219, 220, 222 comparison of values, 297-299 Olfactory bulb correlational and statistical associations, adult neurogenesis in, 222 306-307 size considerations, 150-151, 211, 212, evolutionary history and, 308 213, 219, 222 math IQ origins, 293, 308-311 Olfactory perception, 213-216 oldest numbers, 295-301 Olfactory spatial hypothesis, 150, 211, 216, representation, 295-297 218-219, 220, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, symbols, 301-302 227, 228 Onychophoran worms, 44 Opabinia, 40, 43 O Opisthobranchia, 154, 155, 157, 163, 171, 173 Odontogriphus, 40, 44 Opossums, 94, 100, 107 Ohno, Susumu, 28 Optic tectum (see also Chick optic tectum) Old World monkeys, 94, 99, 120, 121, 122, frogs, 58, 124 123, 276, 283, 285 species differences in size, 77 Olenoides, 40, 43 tentacle snake, 242, 243 Olfaction Optimal foraging theory, 151, 229, 230, 235, allocation of perception and attention, 238, 239 214 Orangutans, 145, 234 arthropods, 213, 216, 225-226 Ottoia, 40, 43 axons, 213 Otx genes, 47 bats, 220, 221, 222-223, 226 Outgroup analysis of metazoan central birds, 219, 223-224 neural characters, 37, 45-46, 47-48, chemosensory receptors, 213, 218 49-53, 54

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408  / Index Owen, Richard, xv, xvi Polychaete annelids, 43 Owl monkeys, 101, 102-103, 120, 121 Polyplacophorians, 52 Oxytocin, 195, 205 Porifera, 3, 4, 5, 15, 49 (see also Sponges) Postembryonic neuroblasts, 69-70 Posterior parietal cortex, 99, 101, 113, 115, P 122, 123 Potassium leak and voltage-gated ion Paddlefish, 185 channels, 1, 21, 22, 23, 24, 28, 31 Paedomorphosis, 52 Praecambridium, 39, 40, 54 Parallel evolution, 33, 35, 173-174 Predatory strategy (see also Star-nosed Paranthropus, 147 moles; Tentacled snakes) Parhyale sp., 63, 73 olfaction and, 220-223, 225 Parrots, 76 Prefrontal cortex, 137, 251, 289, 310, 329, Patel, Nipam H., 57, 61-74 331 (see also Ventral prefrontal Pax genes, 47 cortex) PDM gene, 68 Premotor cortex, 115, 122, 123, 180, 190, Pectoral appendages, 150, 175, 176, 177, 274, 276, 283 185-188, 190, 191 Premotor-motor circuitry, 175, 176, 178, Peking University, viii 183, 184, 191 Phenocopy approach, 76 Preuss, Todd M., 251, 253-271 Phenotypic variability Priapulid worms, 42, 43 and behavior, 92 Primates comparative genomics and, 254-256 brain–body scaling, 145-146 cross-species, 93-100 brain size, 128, 129, 132, 134-135, 136, discovery approach, 269 137, 138, 139, 140, 141 extended phenotype, 91, 92, 93 cerebral cortex, 132, 136, 137, 138, 139, extrinsic factors, 107-110 140 genes and, 92, 93, 104-107, 111, 266-270 glia/neuron ratio, 142, 143 mammalian cortical evolution, 91-111 hand, 99, 101 morphology, 92, 93, 97-98 neocortex, 76, 99, 101, 113-125 targets of selection, 92-93 number of neurons, 141 within-species, 100-104 Princeton University, vii Pheromones, 34 Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Phylliroë atlantica, 155, 159 77, 78, 79, 81, 85, 89 Phylliroë bucephala, 155, 159 Proteasome 26S, 4, 6, 8, 11-12, 13, 15, 18-19 Phylogenetic systematics Protostomes, 48, 49, 51, 52, 211, 227, 228 methodological advances, xvi-xvii Pufferfish, 2, 22, 33, 34, 36 Pia mater, 58, 75, 76, 77, 80, 81, 83, 86-87, 88 Pyramidal neurons, 31, 36, 115, 276-277 Pikaia, 40, 43 Pinnipeds, 221, 223, 226 Piranhas, 184 R Pit vipers, 244 Pituitary, 103, 206 Rabbits, 119, 122, 254 Placozoans, 49, 53 Raccoons, 96, 97 Platyhelminthes, 49, 52, 53 Ramón y Cajal, Santiago, xvi Pleiotropy, 267 Rangeomorpha, 41 Pleurobranchaea californica, 153, 161, 162, Rats, 76, 85, 96-97, 100, 101, 103, 107-108, 166, 167, 168, 171, 172 119-120, 189, 219-220, 262, 297 (see Pleurobranchomorpha, 155, 156, 161, 163, also Blind mole rats; Naked mole 164 rats) Pleurobranchus membranaceus, 161, 163 Rattus norvegicus, 100, 103 Plocamopherus, 157, 160-161 Ray-finned fish, 31, 36

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Index / 409 Reaper gene, 69, 70, 71 Snakes, 224 (see also Tentacled snakes) Red slider turtles, 224 Sodium channels (see Voltage-gated sodium REST transcriptional repressor, 14 channels) Retina, 105, 116, 120-121 Soma, 27, 31 Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), 9, 270, Somatosensory areas 274, 283, 285 barrel field, 119-120 Roboastra, 161 homologies, 93, 94 Rodents (see also specific rodents) intraspecies variability, 100, 110-111 brain size, 134-135, 136, 141 primates, 116, 120, 121-122 glia/neuron ratio, 142, 143 size changes, 96, 98-99, 105-106, 107 neocortex, 59, 85, 94, 100, 101, 114, 117, star-nosed moles, 120, 233-235 118, 119, 122, 123 structure, 116, 233-235 number of neurons, 141 tentacle snake, 243 olfaction, 213 Song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), 193, social affiliation, 206 195-210 territoriality, 194 Songbirds, 76, 150, 194, 205, 224, 263 whiskers, 97, 120, 233 Sound production (see also Acoustic Romanski, Lizabeth M., 251-252, 273-291 signaling; Vocalization) coupling of respiration and, 181 muscle evolution, 32 S Sparrow seasonal sociality flocking, 194, 197-201, 205-206 Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 5, 13, 16 group-size decisions, 195 Saccoglossus, 48 individual differences in aggression, Sackler, Arthur M., vii-viii. See also Arthur 193, 203-205 M. Sackler Colloquium methods, 209-210 Sackler, Jillian, vii, viii neurochemical signals, 193, 197-204, Sakurai, Akira, 149, 153-174 205-206 Salamanders, 52 plasticity, 205, 208 Salmon, 185, 187, 225 species-specific territorial behavior, 201- Saltatory conduction, 27 203, 207-208 Sarcopterygian fishes, 36, 176, 182, 185, 186 Speech (see also Language) Scandentia, 134-135, 133, 137, 143 audiovisual integration, 252, 273, Schistocerca, 73 288-291 Schizocosa, 73 brain areas, 267, 273, 288-291 Schizophrenia, vii FOXP2 gene and, 253, 259, 260, 261, 262, Schrock, Sara E., 150, 193-210 266-267 Sculpin, 182, 184, 187-188 gesture integration, 190, 289, 290 Sea robins, 184, 187-188 homologs in other primates, 330 Sea turtles, 224-225, 226 perception, 252, 289 Seelke, Adele M. H., 58, 91-111 production, 262, 267, 283 Segment polarity genes, 67 Spiders, 66, 73 Shankouclava, 43 Spiralians, 48, 49, 51 Sharks, 176, 212, 221, 225 Sponges, 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, Shiverer mice, 27 16, 22, 24, 41-42 Short-finned whales, 128 Spriggina, 39, 40, 54 Short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis Squirrel monkeys, 101, 102, 120, 147, 177, domestica), 100, 107 274 Short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda), 236 Squirrels, 94, 100, 101, 103 Shrews, 114, 117, 118, 119, 122, 235, 236, 238 Star-nosed moles (Condylura cristata) Sidneyia, 40, 43 competition in the swamp, 229, 235-236 Smooth dogfish, 225

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410  / Index cortical structure, 95, 96-97, 99, 120, 230, spatial orientation, 225 233-235, 248 vocal-pectoral motor systems, 179, 184, hunting behavior, 151, 229, 233, 236-238, 185 241-242 Temporal cortex, 123-124, 331 morphology, 229, 230, 231 Tentacled snakes optimal foraging theory and, 151, 229, adaptation to fish escape response, 229, 230, 235-238, 239 230, 244-247 prey profitability and foraging behavior, hunting behavior, 229-230, 241-242, 236-238 243-244 sensory organs, 120, 229, 230, 231-233, innate ability, 247-248 239 neural circuits, 243 star evolution, 229, 230, 239-241 mechanosensory appendages, 229, 230, star function, 238-239 243 star innervation, 229, 231-233 morphology, 231 tactile fovea, 229, 233 optic tectum response to visual stimuli, State University of New York at Stony 229, 243 Brook, viii Tethys fimbria, 155, 156, 159 Striedter, Georg F., 57-58, 75-90 Tetrapods Sturgeon, 184 Nav channel evolution, 21, 28-29, 30-31, Synapses, neuronal 35-36 assembly, 1, 13-14, 115 olfactory-spatial hypothesis, 225 bilaterian gene networks, 5, 6, 7, 9, 14, vocal-pectoral motor systems, 150, 175, 15, 53 176, 177, 181-182, 184, 186, 187, 188, and cognitive capabilities, 129-130 190, 191 density across species, 129 Tetrodotoxin (TTX), 2, 21-22, 32-34 network analysis of gene expression, 1, TGF-β receptor gene superfamily, 28 4-10, 11-12, 15 Thalamus, 51, 93, 105, 116, 120, 261, 262, 265 plasticity, 144, 264, 269, 270 Toadfishes, 150, 179, 181-182, 183, 184, 185, protein interactions, 6 188 scaffolding proteins, 13-14 Tochina, 171 signaling, 3, 13 Touch organs (see also Star-nosed moles) vacuolar ATPase complex, 5, 9, 10, 11, bat touch domes, 98, 109, 110-111 15 whiskers, 97, 120, 233 vesicles, 4, 5, 9, 10, 13 Transcription factors, 5, 62, 68, 104, 105, 106, 109, 256, 260, 264 Trapania velox, 160, 161, 166 T Tree shrews, 114, 117, 118, 119, 122 Trilobites, 39, 40, 43, 54 Tambja eliora, 157, 161 Triopha, 156, 161, 171 Taxonomic analysis, acoustic signaling, 182 Tripartite brain hypothesis, 37, 47, 48, 49, Tectum (see Chick optic tectum) 53, 54 Telencephalon Tritonia diomedea, 153, 159, 162, 166, 167, navigation function, 225 168, 171 neurogenesis, 21, 35, 76, 85, 89 parrots and songbirds, 76 size/volume, 76, 77, 225 U Teleosts hindbrain segmentation, 178 Ultrabithorax (Ubx), 63-64, 70, 71 medial pallium homologue, 225 Urochordates, 43, 52 Nav channel evolution, 21, 28-30, 31-32, 35-36

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Index / 411 V ocular dominance columns, 120-121, 124-125 Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), orientation hypercolumns, 118-119, 124 193, 195, 196-197, 198, 199, 202, 203, phenotypic variability, 95, 100, 101, 103, 206-207, 208, 209 105, 107, 108-109, 115, 116, 117, 118, Vasopressin, 195 119, 120-121 Vasotocin, 193, 195, 196-197, 198, 200-201, primary visual cortex, 58, 93-94, 100, 202, 203, 205-206, 207, 208, 210 116 Vendobionta, 39, 41 primates, 116-117, 121-122, 124 Ventral neuroectoderm, 65-66, 71 size/organizational changes, 58, 105- Ventral prefrontal cortex 106, 107 anatomical considerations, 274-279 somatosensory connections, 107, auditory projections to prefrontal 120-121 cortex, 278-279 stimulus orientations, 118-119 audiovisual integration in human brain, two-cone color vision, 103 288-291 within-species variability, 101-103 audiovisual speech evolution, 288-291 Vocalization (see also Acoustic signaling; auditory responses and function in, Speech) 283-286 central pattern generators, 175 connectivity with cortical visual circuitry, 187-188, 189 processing regions, 277-278 coupling of sound production and cytoarchitectonic organization, 276-277 respiration, 175, 181, 182 functional studies, 279-288 Voltage-gated sodium (Na+ or Nav) multisensory responses in, 286-288 channels organization, 274-276 adaptive evolution, 21-22, 28, 31-35 visual processing, 279-282 at axon initial segments, 2, 21, 27, 31 Ventromedial hypothalamus, 194, 197, 203, and computation ability, 21, 31, 35-36 207 and energy, 21-22, 31, 35-36 Vernanimalcula, 39, 53 function, 21 Vertebrates gene duplication in teleosts and bmp-4 gene, 48 tetrapods, 21, 27-31, 35-36 hindbrain segmental blueprint, 176-178 genes for 6TM family, 22-26 homologies in gene expression patterns, and insecticide resistance, 22, 35 2 invertebrates, 21, 25, 26, 27-28, 33, 34, 35 motor neurons, 71-72 at nodes of Ranvier, 2, 21, 27 olfactory system, 213, 219 maximum likelihood phylogeny, 25 phylogeny, 176 and proton insensitivity, 21-22, 34 Vetulicolians, 43, 44 structure, 24-25 Vimentin, 82, 87, 90 and tetrodotoxin resistance, 2, 21-22, Visual acuity, 244 32-34 Visual cortex in weakly electric fish, 21-22, 30-32, 36 auditory connections, 94, 107, 244 vertebrates, 2, 28 in blind mole rats, 58, 93, 107 blobs and interblobs, 58, 116-117 color selective domain, 103, 124 W cross-species variability, 93, 94, 95 hue-selective subregions, 119 Waddington, Conrad, 77 middle temporal crescent, 115, 118 Weber’s law, 294, 296, 297, 302, 304, 309, neuron number/density, 103 324 Whales, 128, 141, 263

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412  / Index White-footed mice, 103-104 Y White Sea assemblage, 41 Wilson, Leah C., 150, 193-210 Yunnanozoans, 43-44 Wnt/planar polarity genes, 11 Yunnanozoon, 43 X Z Xenocoelmorphs, 50, 51, 52 Zakon, Harold H., 1-2, 21-36 Xenopus Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), 177, 195, chordin (chd) gene, 48 205, 263 X. tropicalis, 5, 7, 8, 16, 19 Zebrafish (see also Danio rerio), 185, 186, Xenoturbella, 49, 50, 52-53 187, 190 Zhongjianichthys, 44 Zhou, Hongjun, 1, 3-19