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Armina, 156, 158, 171

Arms races, 36, 42, 227

Aromatase (ARO), 193, 195, 197, 203, 207, 209

Arthropods (see also Bilaterians)

appendage morphology, 63-65

body plans, 62-63

brains, 2, 49, 51, 54

Cambrian explosion, 42, 43

homologous structures, 66, 72-74

Hox genes, 57, 62, 63, 65, 68-70, 71, 74

motor circuits, 69, 70-72

nervous system specialization, 2, 54, 57, 61-74

neurogenesis, 61, 65-67, 70-72

olfaction, 213, 216, 225-226

outgroup analysis, 48

segmental neuromeres, 61, 67-70

segmentation network, 62, 67

stem, 39, 44

Arthur M. Sackler Colloquia, iv, viii, xiii, xv

Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of Asian Art, viii

Ascidians, 27

Associative learning, 227

Auditory acuity, 244

Auditory cortex

classic columns, 119

cross-species modifications, 95, 119

extrinsic factors affecting phenotypic variability, 107, 110

homologies, 93, 94, 95

Australopithecus, 147

Avalon assemblage, 41

Avise, John C., xiii-xiv

Axons

arborizations, 71, 138

conduction velocity, 27

cortical connectivity, 138-139

diameter, 139

evolution of centralized nervous systems, 51

genesis, 68

Hox gene regulation, 71, 72

lateral geniculate, 121

length, 139, 265

of motor neurons, 31, 70, 71, 72, 169, 183, 185-186, 187

myelinated/myelination, 2, 21, 27, 101, 233, 276, 277

Nav clusters at initial segments, 2, 21, 27, 31

olfactory, 213

targeting, 71

termination patterns, 121

tracing, xvi, 67, 68, 256

Ayala, Francisco J., xiii-xiv

Aysheaia, 40, 44

B

Bacteria

toxins, 32

voltage-gated ion channels, 22, 23-24

Barn owls, 244

Barrett, H. Clark, 252, 313-333

Bass, Andrew H., 149-150, 175-191

Bassett, Danielle S., 1, 3-19

Bats

behavior, 111

cognitive mapping, 222

cortical organization, 106, 111, 222, 235

echolocating, 109, 221, 222, 223, 263

FOXP2 sequences, 263

limb morphology, 97-98, 106, 110-111

olfaction, 220, 221, 222-223, 226

touch domes, 98, 109, 110-111

wing, 97-98, 110

Behavior (see also Acoustic signaling; Foraging behavior; Nudipleura swimming behavior; Sparrow seasonal sociality)

cortical phenotype and, 103, 105

neural basis for, 154

neuroendocrinology, 103

social affiliation, 206

tongue licking, 189

β-catenin, 76

Bichirs (Polypteriformes), 36, 184

Bilaterians

anterior posterior patterning, 47, 48, 49, 53, 54

brain evolution, 47-48, 49, 50, 51, 54, 226, 227

Cambrian explosion, 42, 43

central neural characters, 49, 50, 51-52

clades, 49-50

dorsoventral patterning, 47, 48, 53, 72

Ediacaran, 37, 39-40, 41, 47, 53, 226-227

genetic basis of body plan, 47-48, 53, 62

Hox genes, 62

last common ancestor, 2, 24, 37, 38, 50, 51, 53-54

locomotory, 41



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