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FIGURE 1.1 Origins of synaptic genes. (A) Homologues of genes in the human synaptic complex were identified in the genomes of selected organisms representing key phylogenetic steps in animal evolution. Colors indicate the inferred ancestor of origin for each gene, as indicated in B. (B) Evolutionary relationships among animal phyla. The names of representative species are shown. [Note: Figure can be viewed in color in the PDF version of this volume on the National Academies Press website,]

suggest that reorganization of gene expression, most likely through the modification of transcriptional regulation, was a key factor in the evolution of cellular machines such as the synapse.

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