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5

Expansion, Folding, and Abnormal Lamination of the Chick Optic Tectum After Intraventricular Injections of FGF2

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LUKE D. MCGOWAN,* ROULA A. ALAAMA, AMANDA C. FREISE, JOHNNY C. HUANG, CHRISTINE J. CHARVET, AND GEORG F. STRIEDTER

Comparative research has shown that evolutionary increases in brain region volumes often involve delays in neurogenesis. However, little is known about the influence of such changes on subsequent development. To get at this question, we injected FGF2—which delays cell cycle exit in mammalian neocortex—into the cerebral ventricles of chicks at embryonic day (ED) 4. This manipulation alters the development of the optic tectum dramatically. By ED7, the tectum of FGF2-treated birds is abnormally thin and has a reduced postmitotic layer, consistent with a delay in neurogenesis. FGF2 treatment also increases tectal volume and ventricular surface area, disturbs tectal lamination, and creates small discontinuities in the pia mater overlying the tectum. On ED12, the tectum is still larger in FGF2-treated embryos than in controls. However, lateral portions of the FGF2-treated tectum now exhibit volcano-like laminar disturbances that coincide with holes in the pia, and the caudomedial tectum exhibits prominent folds. To explain these observations, we propose that the tangential expansion of the ventricular surface in FGF2-treated tecta outpaces the expansion of the pial surface, creating abnormal mechanical stresses. Two alternative means of alleviating these stresses are tectal foliation and the formation of pial holes. The latter probably alter signaling gradients required for normal cell migration



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