force participation rates for older (60–75) workers over the next 30 years. Labor force participation rates have already reversed their long-term decline for men. The average retirement age has risen for women as well, and it appears that the older population is not becoming any less healthy. In view of these and other trends, can we better project labor market activity? There are several elements to this question: (1) What fraction of the older population will have health limitations that prevent them from earning much income at age 62, 65, 68, or even 70? (2) How responsive is labor supply to financial incentives to work? (3) Will the labor market deliver opportunities for older workers that will enable the labor force participation rate to rise significantly? and (4) How might changing labor force patterns among women contribute to the overall labor force participation rate? Part of the research challenge in this area is to distill and synthesize the large quantity of empirical evidence on labor supply response to various factors.

2b. Assess the development and adoption of technologies that enhance the capacity of individuals with specific disabilities to participate in the workforce. There are a number of ways in which policy can affect health and disability in the population. One way in particular would be to encourage the development of technologies, including person-based biomedical advances as well as workplace-based devices, that can help improve the health and capacity of individuals with various types of disabilities to perform job-related functions.

2c. Undertake specific analyses of how work at older ages has been and could be facilitated, including demand-side factors. The analyses within this report strongly suggest that more people will be working to older ages than has been the case in past decades. How long people work will depend not only on health trends and pension incentives, but also on the demand for older workers, opportunities for training, retraining, and continuing education, and the flexibility of work at older ages. As our society moves toward later retirement ages, it will be important to (1) assemble disparate information on the types of arrangements that older workers would prefer; (2) understand the arrangements that firms have created or are willing to think about; and (3) evaluate the effect of any trials.

2d. Study the effects of the health reforms enacted in 2010 (known collectively as the Affordable Care Act, or ACA) on labor force participation. The ACA could have important effects on the retirement decision of older workers and on labor force participation decisions more generally. On the one hand, the ACA will make it easier and less expensive for workers who retire early to purchase health insurance on their own and might thereby



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