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3 The STEM Workforce in the Defense Industrial Base, Within DOD, and Overall INTRODUCTION This chapter highlights trends in the overall STEM workforce; discusses the current STEM talent base and the anticipated growth of STEM jobs; examines the current STEM workforce in the defense industrial base; and describes, to the extent that data permit, the DOD STEM workforce. No single, official definition of STEM is used by DOD or the federal government. Recent studies of the U.S. STEM workforce by various government agencies differ along three key dimensions: (1) the occupations included in STEM (e.g., inclusion or exclusion of social scientists, among others), (2) the minimum stated education require- ment (e.g., bachelor's degree and above versus no degree requirement), and (3) the data source used to generate the estimates (e.g., Census Bureau's American Community Survey versus Bureau of Labor Statistics' Occupational Employment Statistics). Table 3-1 (which, along with the other tables in this chapter, is given in the annex at the end of the chapter) illustrates the diverse approaches to estimating STEM employment used by three government agency units--the Bureau of Labor Statistics in the Department of Labor, the Economics and Statistics Admin- istration in the Department of Commerce, and the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics in the National Science Foundation. These estimates indicate that STEM employment in the United States ranges from as low as 4.75 million to as high as 8 million,1 a difference of almost a factor of two. No two estimates in Table 3-1 rely on the same occupation definition, education requirement, and data source! As expected, smaller estimates of the size of the STEM workforce (less than 5 million) are found in the two studies that include only those with at least a bachelor's degree. In terms of occupations, all of the estimates in Table 3-1 include biological, agricultural, and environmental life scientists; computer and mathematical scientists; engineers; and physical scientists.2 Architects, social scientists, STEM managers, STEM postsecondary teachers, STEM sales 1Measures of the STEM workforce presented in this chapter are based on those working in occupations defined as STEM. However, there are other possible approaches. For example, a different approach uses educational credentials as the basis, such that the pool of STEM work- ers includes all those in the labor force with a STEM degree, regardless of occupation. Yet another definition is based on the level of STEM expertise workers report that their jobs require. See National Science Board (2012, Chapter 3) for additional discussion of these alternative measures of the STEM workforce. 2Note that the detailed occupations included in these occupational groups may differ by study. For example, the Bureau of Labor Statistics study includes actuaries in its computer and mathematical scientist category, whereas the Economics and Statistics Administration study excludes actuaries. 37

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38 ASSURING DOD A STRONG STEM WORKFORCE occupations,3 and STEM technicians are included in one or more of the estimates. The largest estimate of approxi- mately 8 million is found in the Bureau of Labor Statistics study, which includes the broadest set of occupations defined as STEM and imposes no education requirement. Observation 3-1. Estimates of STEM employment in the United States vary across studies due to differences in the definitions, assumptions, and data sources utilized. HISTORICAL TRENDS IN THE OVERALL STEM WORKFORCE This discussion of historical trends in the overall STEM workforce relies on information available in a 2006 study released by the Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology (CPST) that examined the U.S. STEM workforce from 1950 to 2000 (CPST, 2006a). The benefit of using a single study is that it applies the same methodology over time. However, since the estimated size of the STEM workforce varies substantially across studies, the focus here is on identifying general trends in the historical STEM workforce. The CPST study takes a broad view of the STEM workforce and includes the following occupational groups in its examination: life sciences; physical sciences; engineering; mathematics and information technology; social sciences; and science and engineering technicians. The study utilizes the decennial U.S. census to estimate the size of the STEM workforce in each decade from 1950 to 2000. These estimates are provided in Table 3-2 in the annex and illustrated in Figure 3-1. For comparison purposes, the first row of Table 3-2 provides information on the size of the overall U.S. workforce in each decade. Over the period 1950-2000, the U.S. workforce grew at an annual rate of 1.7 percent. In comparison, the overall STEM workforce grew at a considerably larger annual rate of 4.2 percent. By 2000, the overall STEM workforce was 7.7 times larger than it was in 1950 (the comparable figure for the overall U.S. workforce was 2.3). Moreover, in 1950 the STEM workforce accounted for 1.5 percent of the U.S. workforce; by 2000 this figure had increased to 5 percent. The STEM occupational group with the largest growth during this 50 year period was mathematics and information technology, which grew at an annual rate of 10.1 percent. In 1950, mathematics and information technology constituted only a small percentage of the overall STEM workforce (2.9 percent); this figure increased to 47.5 percent by 2000. Another notable change is the steady decline in the share of the STEM workforce in engineering occupations (from close to 63 percent in 1950 to less than 27 percent in 2000). The dramatic changes in the mathematics and information technology workforce and the engineering workforce are not unrelated. These changes may be due in part to an increase in the demand for software developers relative to hardware engineers, most notably in the 1980s. Albert Endres, in an essay on the history of software engineering, notes that with the arrival of the personal computer the "traditional dominance of hardware over software ended" (Endres, 1996). Moreover, CPST (2006a) suggests that the observed changes in STEM occupational employment over the period 1950-2000 may be due in part to changes in the way the census defined occupations. For example, according to another CPST study, computer-related occupations were added to the census in 1970 and were expanded in the 2000 Census by reclassifying a large number of electrical and electronics engineers as computer scientists (CPST, 2006b). The CPST (2006a) also notes that changes in the representation of technicians may be due to changes over time in the way these occupations are defined in the census. These occupational changes are illustrated in Figure 3-2, which shows the distribution of the STEM workforce by occupational group from 1950 to 2000. Observation 3-2. STEM employment in the United States over the period 1950-2000 saw dramatic shifts in the distribution of the workforce across occupational groups, most notably the shift away from engineering occupations and into mathematics and information technology occupations; these changes were likely due to a combination of changes in the demand for software developers relative to hardware engineers and changes over time in the way occupations in the census were defined. 3Includes sales engineers and sales representatives for technical and scientific products.

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began from small numbers, its rate of growth is necessarily slower as it has gained in size. In fact, the growth of the STEM workforce significantly outstripped that of all workers, as well as that of mangers and professionals in almost all decades. The STEM growth rate in the 1990s was a little more than three times that of the overall labor force. THE STEM WORKFORCE IN THE DEFENSE INDUSTRIAL BASE, WITHIN DOD, AND OVERALL 39 Exhibit 1. STEM Workforce, 1950 to 2000 (in thousands) 8,000 7,000 Science and engineering technicians Social sciences 6,000 Math and information technology Engineering STEM Core 5,000 Life and physical sciences 4,000 5,680 3,000 3,648 2,000 1,879 2,431 1,000 1,071 731 0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 STEM3-1 FIGURE Core = engineering, STEM workforcelife byand physical scientists, occupational and math group, 1950, 1960,and information 1970, technology. 1980, 1990, and 2000 (in thousands). Source: SOURCE: U.S. Census CPST (2006a, microdata. p. 3). See "Note on Data." 100 9.5% 9.5% 7.9% 15.6% Engineering technicians 90 13.0% 17.9% 4.4% 5.1% 1 See yearly growth rates estimated 17.0% from 18.7% these data in the National Science Foundation's 2006 report on 4.3% Percent of STEM workforce 80 5.5% Science technicians 7.9% Science and Engineering Indicators. 6.4% 70 13.6% Social sciences 60 18.7% 28.9% 47.5% Commission on Professionals 50 in Science and Technology, http://www.cpst.org 3 62.9% Math and information technology 40 57.8% 45.2% Engineering 30 42.5% 35.3% 26.5% 20 Physical sciences 10 11.2% 7.9% 6.0% 5.4% 5.0% 5.4% 4.8% 3.7% 3.1% 3.6% 3.2% 3.2% Life sciences 0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 FIGURE 3-2 Distribution of STEM workforce by occupational group, 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, and 2000. SOURCE: Data are from CPST (2006a). Tabulations by 3-2.eps the National Research Council. CURRENT AND ANTICIPATED STEM LABOR MARKET Data available from the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Employment Projections Program is used to examine the current STEM labor market in the United States and the anticipated growth of STEM jobs. This program makes ten- year employment projections every 2 years. The most recent projections estimate the number of job openings that are expected to arise between 2010 and 2020. Expected job openings in a given occupation are due to two sources: (1) job openings that are the result of expected growth in employment in an occupation (i.e., new jobs) and (2) job openings that arise from the need to replace people who are expected to leave an occupation (for example, due to

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40 ASSURING DOD A STRONG STEM WORKFORCE retirement or career change).4 According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, job openings from replacement needs exceed the number of job openings from growth in roughly 80 percent of occupations (Lockard and Wolf, 2012). It is important to note that projecting changes in employment is a difficult task. As discussed in a 2000 National Research Council workshop report on the demand and supply of doctoral scientists and engineers (National Research Council, 2000), "[a] short-term forecast, a one- or two-year forecast using annual data, can do a good job of forecasting point estimates." Long-term forecasts, such as the 10-year projections created by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, "are more complex than short-term forecasts and are more vulnerable to unanticipated changes in the economic environment" (National Research Council, 2000). In fact, the Bureau of Labor Statistics states that because "employment for many industries still had not recovered to pre-recessionary levels when the 2010-20 projections were developed," this resulted in "faster growth rates and more numerous openings than might have been expected . . . had the recession not occurred" (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2012). The Bureau of Labor Statistics assesses its projections periodically. In its most recent assessment of the 1996- 2006 occupational projections, Wyatt (2010) asserts that the Bureau of Labor Statistics' occupational projections did better than "nave" models (which assume that all prior trends and relationships continue). Moreover, Wyatt notes that "BLS was off by only 4.2 percent in projecting the distribution of employment among occupations"(Wyatt, 2010, p. 59). However, if one looks at the performance of the projections for specific STEM occupations, a some- what different pattern emerges. Wyatt provides projected and actual growth between 1996 and 2006 for 18 STEM occupations. In one-third of the occupations (6 of the 18), there was either an increase in employment for the occupation when the Bureau of Labor Statistics projected a decline (2 occupations) or a decrease in employment for the occupation when the Bureau of Labor Statistics projected an increase (4 occupations). For 11 of the other 12 occupations, the ratio of the actual percentage change to the projected percentage change was at least 1.7; in the remaining case, the Bureau of Labor Statistics projected that employment would increase by 25 percent, but it increased by only 5 percent. These results suggest that the Bureau of Labor Statistics underestimated growth in many STEM occupations over the period 1996-2006. Thus, the employment projections presented here should be interpreted with caution. One way to help mitigate concerns about the accuracy of long-term forecasts is to examine groups of occupa- tions rather than individual occupations. According to National Research Council (2000), aggregating "typically increases forecast accuracy because random errors and movements between the occupations in the aggregate are averaged out." Using information from the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Employment Projections Program, Table 3-3 in the annex, and Figure 3-3 show 2010 estimated employment and projections to 2020 for the following STEM occupational groups--life sciences, physical sciences, engineering, mathematics and information technology, social sciences, STEM managers, and STEM technicians.5,6 STEM managers "[p]lan, direct, or coordinate activi- ties" (Bureau of Labor Statistics, undated) in their field of specialization and include computer and information systems managers, architectural and engineering managers, and natural science managers. Table 3-3 also includes the 2010-2020 employment growth rate, which equals the number of new jobs expected over the 10-year period as a percentage of 2010 employment; the 2010-2020 replacement rate, which equals the number of job openings due to replacement needs expected over the 10-year period as a percentage of 2010 employment; and the number of projected job openings from the combination of growth and replacement needs. For comparison purposes, the top row of Table 3-3 provides information for all occupations across the nation. Across all occupations in the United States, employment is projected to grow from approximately 143 mil- 4A job opening from replacement does not include instances in which an individual moves from one company to another without changing occupation. 5Occupational groups are based on the following Standard Occupation Classification (SOC) codes: 19-1000 (Life Scientists); 19-2000 (Physi- cal Scientists); 17-2000 (Engineers); 15-0000, excluding 15-2091 (Computer and Mathematical Occupations); 19-3000 (Social Scientists); 11-3021, 11-9041, 11-9121 (STEM Managers); and 15-2091, 17-3020, 17-3031, 19-4000 (STEM Technicians). Postsecondary STEM teachers are excluded since the information available from the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Employment Projections Program does not distinguish teach- ing field. Note that the STEM Managers category includes architectural managers since they are included in SOC code 11-9041 (Architectural and Engineering Managers) and cannot be disentangled from engineering managers. 6Since the definitions and data source used in this section differ from those used in CPST (2006a), care must be taken in making direct comparisons of STEM employment across the two reports.

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THE STEM WORKFORCE IN THE DEFENSE INDUSTRIAL BASE, WITHIN DOD, AND OVERALL 41 9,000 STEM technicians* 8,000 939 609 STEM managers* STEM workforce (000s) 7,000 865 534 6,000 Social sciences 5,000 4,320 Mathematics and information 4,000 3,542 technology* 3,000 Engineering 2,000 1,679 Physical sciences 1,519 1,000 286 344 Life sciences 0 2010 2020 (Projected) FIGURE 3-3 Employment by STEM occupational group, 2010 and 2020 (projected). 3-3.eps SOURCE: Data are from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Employment Projections Program (www. bls.gov/emp/). Projected job openings are due to growth and replacement needs. An asterisk (*) indicates that the information presented has been computed by the National Research Council. lion in 2010 to more than 163 million in 2020. This increase in employment of 20 million represents a projected growth rate of 14.3 percent over this 10-year period. In addition, the estimated replacement rate over this 10-year period is 23.6 percent. Taken together, these changes are expected to result in roughly 55 million job openings during this 10-year period. Across all of the STEM occupational groups examined, employment is expected to grow by 16.9 percent over the period 2010-2020, which is slightly higher than the overall U.S. growth rate. On the other hand, the replacement rate of 21.7 percent is slightly lower than the rate for the nation. Based on these estimates, more than 2.8 million STEM job openings are expected by 2020. Roughly half of these job openings are expected to be in math and information technology occupations, with an additional 526,000 expected to be in engineering occupations.7 It's interesting to note that the source of job openings varies by occupational group. For example, the job openings in math and information technology occupations are from a mix of employment growth and replacements, while job openings in engineering occupations are predominantly from replacements. Moreover, replacement rates are notably high in physical science occupations (30.6 percent) and social science occupations (32.1 percent). According to these employment estimates, more than 48 percent of the current STEM workforce is in math and information technology occupations, and this figure is projected to increase to more than 50 percent by 2020. The share of the STEM workforce in engineering occupations is expected to decline to less than 20 percent by 2020. Although less dramatic, these changes follow the same general pattern of 1950-2000 STEM employment changes as presented in CPST (2006a). The projected changes in the distribution of the STEM workforce by occupational group between 2010 and 2020 are illustrated in Figure 3-4. 7Although a detailed comparison of the projected job openings in STEM occupations over the period 2010-2020 to projected degree produc- tion over this period is beyond the scope of this study, a rough calculation using degree completions data from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) suggests that degree production will likely outpace projected job openings for all STEM occupations except mathematicians and information technology. For example, according to the projections in Table 3-3, approximately 53,000 job openings each year are expected in engineering occupations. In 2010, more than 70,000 bachelor's degrees and more than 35,000 master's degrees were awarded in the field of engineering. Moreover, there are projected to be more than 140,000 job openings each year in mathematics and informa- tion technology occupations. In 2010, however, the number of bachelor's and master's degrees awarded in math and computer sciences fields was approximately 81,000, with another 33,500 associate's degrees awarded. Note that this rough calculation does not account for diversion of STEM talent into non-STEM occupations. See Lowell et al. (2009) and Carnevale et al. (2011) for examinations of retention and diversion.

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42 ASSURING DOD A STRONG STEM WORKFORCE 100 STEM technicians 11.8% 11.0% 90 7.3% 7.1% Percent of STEM workforce 80 4.2% STEM managers 4.2% 70 Social sciences 60 48.3% 50.4% 50 Mathematics and information technology 40 Engineering 30 20 20.7% 19.6% Physical sciences 10 3.8% 3.7% 3.9% 4.0% Life sciences 0 2010 2020 (Projected) FIGURE 3-4 Distribution of STEM workforce by occupational group, 2010 and 2020 (projected). SOURCE: Data are from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Employment Projections Program (www. 3-4.eps bls.gov/emp/). Tabulations by the National Research Council. Observation 3-3. More than 2.8 million STEM job openings in the United States are expected by 2020, with half of them expected to be in math and information technology occupations. STEM WORKFORCE IN THE DEFENSE INDUSTRIAL BASE The first step in examining the STEM workforce in the defense industrial base is to define the industries that constitute the defense industrial base.8 According to the Department of Homeland Security, the defense industrial base includes the "private sector worldwide industrial complex with capabilities to perform research and develop- ment (R&D), design, produce, deliver, and maintain military weapon systems, subsystems, components, or parts to meet military requirements" and "includes hundreds of thousands of domestic and foreign entities and their subcontractors" (Department of Homeland Security, 2007). Due to the complexity of the defense industrial base and limitations associated with the various data sources used to estimate the size of the workforce, these estimates may, in some cases, underestimate the size of the defense industrial base STEM workforce and may, in other cases, overestimate the size. In examining the defense industrial base, the Aerospace Industries Association (AIA) defines the aerospace and defense industry as (1) aerospace products and parts manufacturing (NAICS 3364), which consists of activi- ties such as aircraft manufacturing, aircraft engine and engine parts manufacturing, and guided missile and space vehicle manufacturing; and (2) search, detection, and navigation instruments manufacturing (NAICS 334511), which consists of activities such as the manufacturing of aircraft instruments (except engines), flight recorders, navigational instruments and systems, radar systems and equipment, and sonar systems and equipment. 9,10 The AIA estimates aerospace and defense employment at 623,700 in 2010. A recent report prepared by Deloitte (and commissioned by the AIA) takes a broader view and also includes establishments engaged in operating a shipyard 8The industries discussed in this section provide services not only to the U.S. Department of Defense, but also to other government agencies (e.g., NASA, NOAA) as well as to private sector enterprises (e.g., commercial airlines). 9The NAICS (North American Industry Classification System) is the standard industrial classification system used by statistical agencies such as the Bureau of Labor Statistics. A comprehensive list of the most recent version of the NAICS can be found at http://www.census.gov/ cgi-bin/sssd/naics/naicsrch?chart=2007. 10Aerospace Industries Association, Aerospace Statistics, Series 12: Total and Production Worker Employment in the Aerospace Industry (Quarterly) (http://www.aia-aerospace.org/assets/stat12.pdf).

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THE STEM WORKFORCE IN THE DEFENSE INDUSTRIAL BASE, WITHIN DOD, AND OVERALL 43 (NAICS 336611), ordnance manufacturing (NAICS 332995), and small arms ammunition manufacturing (NAICS 332992), among others (Deloitte, 2012). The Deloitte report estimates employment at slightly more than 1 million in 2010. These two reports suggest that employment in the defense industrial base represents a relatively modest fraction of total U.S. employment (less than 1 percent). To provide a sense of how aerospace and defense employment has changed over time, Figure 3-5 shows employment from 2005 to 2010 based on estimates provided in these two sources. Both sources show an increase in employment from 2005 until 2008, followed by a gradual decline from 2008 until 2010. The Deloitte study speculates that the recent decrease in employment "can be partially attributed to several high profile reductions in force by several major defense contractors" (Deloitte, 2012, p. 13), such as Lockheed Martin, BAE Systems, and United Space Alliance. The AIA and Deloitte studies, however, do not specifically examine the STEM workforce in the defense industrial base. Information available from the Census Bureau's American Community Survey can be used to estimate STEM employment in the defense industrial base.11 To generate this estimate, a broad definition of the defense industrial base (in keeping with the Deloitte study discussed earlier) is utilized. The following industries are identified as part of the defense industrial base: aircraft and parts manufacturing; aerospace products and parts manufacturing; manufacturing of navigational, measuring, electromedical, and control instruments; ship and boat building; and ordnance manufacturing.12 Due to the way in which industry is captured in the American Community Survey, some of these industries include activities that are not specific to the defense industrial base. For example, the definition used here includes the manufacturing of medical equipment such as pacemakers and ultrasound equipment. With this caveat in mind, total employment in the defense industrial base is estimated at 1 million in 2010, which coincides with the estimate in the Deloitte study. Of this, STEM employment is about 300,000, or 30 percent of total employment.13 These results suggest that STEM employment in the defense industrial base repre- sents approximately 4 percent of total STEM employment.14 Within the defense industrial base STEM workforce, the largest occupational group is engineering (60 percent), followed by mathematics and information technology (23.4 percent). Physical sciences, STEM managers, and STEM technicians each constitute 1.1 percent, 7 percent, and 8.4 percent, respectively. Life sciences and social sciences collectively represent less than 0.2 percent of the defense industrial base STEM workforce. Information from the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Employment Projections Program can be used to examine the anticipated growth of STEM employment in the defense industrial base. However, this information is only available for a subset of the industries that constitute the defense industrial base. Specifically, information is avail- able for aerospace products and parts manufacturing (NAICS 3364). This industry includes the manufacturing of aircraft, aircraft engines, guided missiles, space vehicles, and parts. Based on employment information provided in the AIA study, the aerospace products and parts industry accounts for approximately 77 percent of total employ- ment in the aerospace and defense industry. This figure is a more modest 46 percent in the Deloitte study (and the estimates generated from the American Community Survey), due to the broader definition of the aerospace and defense industry used. Table 3-4, in the annex, and Figure 3-6 present 2010 STEM employment and 2020 projected STEM employ- 11The American Community Survey 2010 Public Use Microdata Sample Files were used to generate these employment estimates. 12The following NAICS industry codes in the American Community Survey 2010 Public Use Microdata Sample Files were used to identify these industries: 33641M1, 33641M2, 3345, 3366, 33299M. 13The following Standard Occupation Classification (SOC) codes in the American Community Survey 2010 Public Use Microdata Sample Files were used to identify STEM occupations: 191010, 191020, 191030, 1910XX (Life Scientists); 192010, 192021, 192030, 192040, 192099 (Physical Scientists); 172011, 172041, 172051, 172061, 172070, 172081, 1720XX, 172110, 172121, 172131, 172141, 1721XX, 1721YY (Engineers); 151111, 151121, 151122, 151131, 151134, 15113X, 151141, 151142, 151143, 151150, 151199, 152011, 152031, 1520XX (Computer and Mathematical Occupations), 193011, 193030, 193051, 1930XX (Social Scientists); 113021, 119041, 119121 (STEM Manag- ers); and 173020, 173031, 194011, 194021, 194031, 1940XX, 1940YY (STEM Technicians). Note that Computer and Mathematical Occupa- tions include Mathematical Technicians and these technicians are excluded from the STEM Technician category. Also, the STEM Managers category includes architectural managers since they are included in SOC code 119041 (Architectural and Engineering Managers) and cannot be disentangled from engineering managers. 14The 4 percent figure equals the estimate of 2010 STEM employment in the defense industrial base divided by 2010 total U.S. STEM employment as detailed in Table 3-3.

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44 ASSURING DOD A STRONG STEM WORKFORCE 1,200 1,102.8 1,073.5 1,076.5 1,100 1,043.3 1,050.6 1,005.8 Aerospace & defense employment (000s) 1,000 Deloitte 900 800 700 631.8 646.8 659.8 644.4 611.7 623.7 600 AIA 500 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 FIGURE 3-5 Aerospace and defense industry employment, 2005-2010. SOURCE: Aerospace Industries Association (2012) and Deloitte (2012). 3-5.eps ment for the aerospace products and parts manufacturing industry, by occupational group. Table 3-5, in the annex, also contains employment information for specific occupations within an occupational group, when this information was available. Note that no employment information was available for two occupational groups--life sciences and social sciences. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics' reporting standards for these estimates, these are instances in which the group has fewer than 50 jobs, the data are confidential, or the quality of the data is too poor to report. The "percent of industry" columns in Tables 3-4 and 3-5 show occupational employment as a percent of total industry employment and are useful for understanding which occupations are or are projected to be the most common in the aerospace products and parts manufacturing industry. The "percent of occupation" columns in the manufacturing STEM employment (000s) 150 STEM technicians** 135 15.2 Aerospace products and parts 14.6 9.0 120 8.3 105 STEM managers** 37.0 35.7 90 75 Mathematics and information technology* 60 45 82.2 Engineering 78.4 30 15 Physical sciences 0 2010 2020 (Projected) FIGURE 3-6 Aerospace products and parts manufacturing (NAICS 3364) STEM employment by occupational group, 2010 3-6.eps and 2020 (projected). *A small number of Mathematical Technicians may be included in these figures. **The information presented has been computed by the National Research Council. SOURCE: Data are from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Employment Projections Program (www. bls.gov/emp/). No employment information is available for life sciences and social sciences because the groups had fewer than 50 jobs, or the data were confidential or of poor quality.

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THE STEM WORKFORCE IN THE DEFENSE INDUSTRIAL BASE, WITHIN DOD, AND OVERALL 45 tables show occupational employment in the aerospace products and parts manufacturing industry as a percent of total occupational employment (across industries) and are useful for understanding how much of a specific occupation is concentrated in the aerospace products and parts manufacturing industry. As discussed earlier in the chapter, employment is very difficult to predict, so the projections presented here should be interpreted with caution. Based on these Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates, 2010 employment in the aerospace products and parts manufacturing industry is approximately 477,000. Of this, STEM employment is 143,900, representing roughly 30 percent of total industry employment. Employment in the industry is projected to decline to approximately 462,000 by 2020, while STEM employment in the industry is projected to decline to 137,400. The projected decline in STEM employment is nearly proportional to the projected decline in industry employment such that STEM employment is expected to remain close to 30 percent of total industry employment. These results suggest that 3 out of every 10 jobs in the aerospace products and parts manufacturing industry is a STEM job, and this relationship is projected to remain until 2020. While STEM jobs are a major component of the aerospace products and parts manufacturing industry, these jobs represent 2 percent of total 2010 STEM employment (across industries). This figure is projected to decline to 1.6 percent by 2020. These figures suggest that only a small fraction of STEM workers are employed in the aerospace products and parts manufacturing industry. Across the seven STEM occupational groups in the aerospace products and parts manufacturing industry, the largest is engineering, which accounts for 57 percent of 2010 industry STEM employment. This is followed by mathematics and information technology, which constitutes close to 26 percent of 2010 industry STEM employ- ment. Employment in these two occupational groups is projected to decline by 2020, although these groups are expected to remain the largest components of STEM in the aerospace products and parts manufacturing industry. Looking again at Table 3-5, in the annex, the largest STEM occupation in the industry is aerospace engineers, with 2010 employment of 28,500, which represents 6 percent of total industry employment. By 2020, employment in this occupation is expected to fall to 25,500, representing 5.5 percent of projected industry employment. As of 2010, the aerospace engineering jobs in this industry equal slightly more than 35 percent of all U.S. aerospace engineering jobs. This figure is expected to decline to 30 percent by 2020. These results illustrate that a substantial proportion of aerospace engineers are employed in the aerospace products and parts manufacturing industry. Thus, events that affect this industry can be expected to have a disproportionate impact on aerospace engineers. Other relatively large STEM occupations in the industry include industrial engineers (16,000); software developers, systems software (15,000); other engineers (11,400), which could include salvage engineers, photonics engineers, ordnance engineers, and optical engineers; and mechanical engineers (11,300). However, these occupations are less concentrated in the aerospace products and parts manufacturing industry than are aerospace engineers. Observation 3-4. While STEM jobs are a major component of the defense industrial base (approximately 3 in 10 jobs), these jobs represent a small fraction of total U.S. STEM employment (2-4 percent). A notable exception is aerospace engineers, a substantial proportion of whom are employed in the aerospace and defense industry. The aforementioned American Community Survey data can also be used to examine the educational attainment and age of the STEM workforce in the defense industrial base. Based on this data, more than 70 percent of the 2010 defense industrial base STEM workforce is estimated to have a bachelor's degree (45 percent) or a master's degree (26 percent). Approximately 25 percent have less than a bachelor's degree, and relatively few have a doctoral degree (3.4 percent) or a professional degree (less 0.5 percent). The occupational group with the greatest propor- tion of the workforce with less than a bachelor's degree is STEM technicians (86 percent), distantly followed by mathematics and information technology (26 percent). For those in the defense industrial base STEM workforce who have a bachelor's degree or above, the most common fields of study are electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, general engineering, aerospace engineering, and computer science. 15 Looking at the age distribution in the defense industrial base STEM workforce, Figure 3-7 shows the age distribution of this workforce in 2005 and 2011 (also see Table 3-6, in the annex). The defense industrial base STEM workforce has aged since 2005. The percentage of the workforce 55 and older increased from 18.6 percent 15Field of study reflects the major associated with an individual's bachelor's degree.

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46 ASSURING DOD A STRONG STEM WORKFORCE 40% Percent of defense industrial base 35% 30% 2005 STEM workforce 25% 2010 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 16-19 20-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 plus Age category FIGURE 3-7 Age distribution of defense industrial base STEM workforce. SOURCE: Data are from the American Community Survey Public Use Microdata Sample Files, 2005 and 2010. Tabulations by the National Research Council. 3-7.eps in 2005 to 22.8 percent in 2010. Moreover, the percentage of the workforce age 35-54 years old fell to 55.1 per- cent in 2010 from 61.4 percent in 2005. Despite an increase in the percentage of the workforce under the age of 35 from 20 percent in 2005 to 22.1 percent in 2010, this increase was not enough to prevent the median age from increasing from 45 in 2005 to 47 in 2010. Observation 3-5. Approximately 75 percent of the defense industrial base STEM workforce has a bachelor's degree or above. Those with less than a bachelor's degree are concentrated in the STEM technician occupational group. Observation 3-6. Despite an increase in the percentage of the defense industrial base STEM workforce that is under the age of 35, this increase has not been enough to prevent median age from increasing to 47 in 2010 (from 45 in 2005). Additional information on the defense industrial base workforce is available in the 2011 edition of the annual Aviation Week Workforce Study (Hedden, 2011). The corporate study compiles demographic, hiring, and other information on the aerospace and defense industry workforce. According to the report, more than 30 aerospace and defense companies participated in the study, representing approximately 90 percent of the aerospace and defense workforce. Based on employment figures provided in the report, this 90 percent translates into employment of about 562,000 in 2010. Figure 3-8 illustrates the age distribution of the aerospace and defense workforce in 2010. According to the chart, more than 50 percent of the workforce is between 36 and 55 years old, with roughly equal percentages younger than 36 and older than 55. The study also examined the age distribution by company size as measured by employee headcount. The age distributions by company size are similar to the age structure for the overall aerospace and defense workforce, with the exception of companies with fewer than 1,000 employees: these companies have more employees age 35 and under (33 percent) and fewer employees age 56 and older (17 percent). The study also notes that the "double-hump" in the industry's age distribution that was seen 5 years ago appears to have been corrected, resulting in a "smoother curve that allows for more active management of workforce structure in the future versus the previous trend of managing to retirement alone" (Hedden, 2011, p. 14). The Aviation Week study also captures information on retirements and retirement eligibility in the aerospace and defense industry.16 Figure 3-9 shows 2010 retirement rates and retirement eligibility for the aerospace and 16 According to the Aviation Week study, all companies included in the study except two used an age threshold of 62 to identify those eligible to retire.

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THE STEM WORKFORCE IN THE DEFENSE INDUSTRIAL BASE, WITHIN DOD, AND OVERALL 47 FIGURE 3-8 Age distribution in the aerospace and defense industry workforce. SOURCE: Hedden (2011). defense industry workforce by job category as well as projected retirement eligibility in 2014 (also see Table 3-7, in the annex). In 2010, 13.8 percent of employees were eligible to retire, but only a relatively small percentage of employees actually retired (1.2 percent). The results are similar across job categories such that only a small per- centage of employees in a given job category retired relative to the percent in the job category who were eligible. The Aviation Week study notes that although "the economy had an impact on ability to retire, Human Resources leaders also believe employees are choosing to remain on the job longer" (Hedden, 2011, p. 12), suggesting that the low observed retirement rates may be due to a combination of the recent recession and other factors. The study further notes that the "real proof will come in the level of retirements as the economy rebounds" (Hedden, 2011, p. 12). The lowest retirement eligibility in 2010 was in the software development job category (5.9 percent), while the highest was in the non-exempt job category (15.4 percent). By 2014, overall retirement eligibility is expected to rise to 22.8 percent, with the test and evaluation and supply chain job categories expected to both reach 29.4 percent. Looking at retirement eligibility by company size (see Table 3-8, in the annex) shows that current and pro- jected eligibility rates are similar to the overall figures for companies of differing sizes, except for those with fewer than 1,000 employees, in which eligibility rates are considerably lower. For example, in 2010 only 2.8 percent of employees in these small companies were eligible to retire; this is expected to increase only to 3.2 percent by 2016. Observation 3-7. As of 2010, about 15 percent of the aerospace and defense workforce was estimated to be eligible to retire, but less than 2 percent of employees actually retired. This low observed retirement rate, however, may be due (at least in part) to the recent recession, and retirements may increase as the economy improves. In terms of hiring in the aerospace and defense industry, the companies included in the Aviation Week study reported that they planned to hire close to 32,000 people in 2011, which represents about 5.7 percent of the 2010 aerospace and defense workforce in these companies. The hiring estimates for 2012 and beyond are lower: approximately 22,000 in 2012 and in 2013 and roughly 14,000 in 2016. Companies in the study reported that the three most difficult to fill positions are in systems engineering, aerospace engineering, and mechanical engineer- ing, although the most difficult to fill position varies by company size. Larger companies with 10,000 or more employees reported systems engineering positions as the most difficult to fill; medium-sized companies with fewer than 10,000 employees but more than 1,000 employees reported mechanical engineering positions; and small companies with fewer than 1,000 employees reported aerospace engineering positions as the most difficult to fill.

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TABLE 3-13 Continued 72 Annual STEM Growth Occupational Rate, 2001- Group OPM Occupational Series 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2011 Mechanical 0830-MECHANICAL 8,134 8,599 8,943 9,097 9,031 9,069 9,045 9,260 10,192 10,902 10,920 3.0% engineer ENGINEERING Other 0801-GENERAL ENGINEERING 10,133 10,324 10,456 10,662 10,924 11,158 11,428 11,963 13,209 14,776 15,470 4.3% engineer 0806-MATERIALS 732 762 783 792 792 759 751 757 783 788 819 1.1% ENGINEERING 0819-ENVIRONMENTAL 2,582 2,588 2,587 2,542 2,498 2,366 2,239 2,111 2,154 2,212 2,186 -1.7% ENGINEERING 0840-NUCLEAR ENGINEERING 1,514 1,656 1,708 1,773 1,777 1,778 1,713 1,791 1,921 2,034 2,136 3.5% 0858-BIOENGINEERING & 40 45 46 52 54 53 56 63 66 71 76 6.6% BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING 0871-NAVAL ARCHITECTURE 725 744 724 711 688 698 699 710 758 813 815 1.2% 0880-MINING ENGINEERING 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 -- 0881-PETROLEUM 4 2 2 1 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 -12.9% ENGINEERING 0890-AGRICULTURAL 2 2 3 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 6 11.6% ENGINEERING 0892-CERAMIC 13 14 13 14 14 12 11 11 9 5 0 -- ENGINEERING* 0894-WELDING 39 38 39 45 43 44 42 46 37 15 0 -- ENGINEERING* 1321-METALLURGY 65 62 61 55 49 48 40 36 38 37 36 -5.7% Life scientist Agricultural/ 0028-ENVIRONMENTAL 2,120 2,136 2,149 2,110 2,063 2,001 1,934 1,966 2,038 2,094 2,005 -0.6% food scientist PROTECTION SPECIALIST 0406-AGRICULTURAL 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -- EXTENSION* 0437-HORTICULTURE 3 3 3 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 1 -10.4% 0454-RANGELAND 11 6 7 7 7 4 5 5 7 6 6 -5.9% MANAGEMENT 0457-SOIL CONSERVATION 9 10 10 10 10 8 7 8 5 4 4 -7.8%

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0470-SOIL SCIENCE 6 7 8 8 6 5 4 5 4 4 4 -4.0% 0471-AGRONOMY 31 28 28 26 25 21 21 20 20 18 19 -4.8% 0487-ANIMAL SCIENCE 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 0.0% Biological 0401-GENERAL NATURAL 1,843 1,992 2,107 2,226 2,402 2,615 2,908 3,313 3,727 3,889 3,943 7.9% scientist RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 0403-MICROBIOLOGY 258 275 266 287 297 300 297 303 323 316 318 2.1% 0405-PHARMACOLOGY 25 26 21 23 25 26 25 25 26 29 29 1.5% 0408-ECOLOGY 126 115 121 124 122 117 111 113 125 124 124 -0.2% 0410-ZOOLOGY 5 6 5 5 5 4 3 3 2 2 2 -8.8% 0413-PHYSIOLOGY 106 109 106 114 114 117 112 117 120 120 119 1.2% 0414-ENTOMOLOGY 48 51 56 51 48 44 43 37 35 41 42 -1.3% 0415-TOXICOLOGY 38 42 45 50 47 48 52 52 51 54 50 2.8% 0430-BOTANY 20 20 20 18 18 18 17 17 20 20 18 -1.0% 0434-PLANT PATHOLOGY 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.0% 0435-PLANT PHYSIOLOGY 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.0% 0440-GENETICS 2 2 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 -6.7% 0482-FISH BIOLOGY 67 70 72 73 77 73 70 74 84 89 94 3.4% 0486-WILDLIFE BIOLOGY 126 132 131 133 139 131 136 144 149 162 162 2.5% Physical scientist Chemist, 1320-CHEMISTRY 1,529 1,514 1,502 1,511 1,499 1,475 1,467 1,510 1,553 1,586 1,580 0.3% except biochemist Earth/ 1310-PHYSICS 1,824 1,841 1,811 1,768 1,711 1,671 1,661 1,647 1,700 1,751 1,680 -0.8% atmospheric/ 1313-GEOPHYSICS 101 105 102 98 97 97 91 86 85 83 80 -2.3% ocean scientist 1315-HYDROLOGY 74 77 75 82 77 74 70 67 72 72 68 -0.8% 1330-ASTRONOMY AND 117 115 109 107 101 100 99 93 95 97 96 -2.0% SPACE SCIENCE 1340-METEOROLOGY 280 273 281 284 284 286 284 288 293 314 318 1.3% 1350-GEOLOGY 316 323 329 320 304 293 288 309 352 360 367 1.5% 1360-OCEANOGRAPHY 322 317 317 301 302 288 277 283 288 300 279 -1.4% 1372-GEODESY 7 7 7 7 7 6 7 8 8 8 10 3.6% 73 continued

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TABLE 3-13 Continued 74 Annual STEM Growth Occupational Rate, 2001- Group OPM Occupational Series 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2011 Other 1301-GENERAL PHYSICAL 1,828 1,870 1,923 1,987 1,950 1,956 1,921 2,015 2,255 2,406 2,410 2.8% physical SCIENCE scientist 1306-HEALTH PHYSICS 331 329 347 341 354 369 378 409 440 475 493 4.1% Social scientist Economics/ 0110-ECONOMIST 252 255 254 249 240 226 210 225 236 241 247 -0.2% business 0135-FOREIGN 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -- AGRICULTURAL AFFAIRS 1140-TRADE SPECIALIST 2 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 -- 1146-AGRICULTURAL 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -- MARKETING 1147-AGRICULTURAL 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -- MARKET REPORTING 2110-TRANSPORTATION 0 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 -- INDUSTRY ANALYSIS Political 0130-FOREIGN AFFAIRS 178 195 195 208 215 241 280 329 390 439 518 11.3% scientist 0131-INTERNATIONAL 93 100 109 108 112 114 112 129 135 148 157 5.4% RELATIONS Psychologist 0180-PSYCHOLOGY 923 917 915 938 968 1,011 1,006 1,062 1,201 1,425 1,589 5.6% Sociologist/ 0184-SOCIOLOGY 6 7 8 7 4 6 5 5 9 14 12 7.2% anthropologist 0190-GENERAL 30 29 33 34 37 40 39 37 37 43 40 2.9% ANTHROPOLOGY Other social 0101-SOCIAL SCIENCE 2,085 2,146 2,198 2,176 2,376 2,446 2,389 2,693 2,879 3,286 3,503 5.3% scientist 0106-UNEMPLOYMENT -- -- INSURANCE 0132-INTELLIGENCE 3,181 3,363 3,712 3,900 4,191 4,417 4,735 4,940 5,148 5,477 6,619 7.6% 0136-INTERNATIONAL 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 1 1 1 -- COOPERATION

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0140-WORKFORCE RESEARCH 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -- AND ANALYSIS 0150-GEOGRAPHY 83 94 109 120 126 141 145 159 194 214 228 10.6% 0160-CIVIL RIGHTS ANALYSIS 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -- 0193-ARCHEOLOGY 162 167 178 183 183 180 182 178 216 234 242 4.1% 1730-EDUCATION RESEARCH 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 10 15 -- Total DOD civilian STEM employment 113,625 119,003 121,289 122,255 123,162 123,323 122,783 126,839 136,516 147,119 151,277 2.9% NOTE: Figures are as of the fiscal year-end (e.g., fiscal year 2011 is as of September 30, 2011). Growth rates are calculated using the compound annual growth rate formula: (Ending value Beginning value)1/N 1, where N is the number of periods that have elapsed between the beginning and ending values. *Series has been cancelled as of the 2011 fiscal year. SOURCE: Data provided by the Defense Manpower Data Center. Tabulations by the National Research Council. 75

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76 ASSURING DOD A STRONG STEM WORKFORCE TABLE 3-14 Department of Defense Civilian STEM Employment by Department and Major Occupational Group, 2011 Department of the Department of the Department of the Department of Air Force Army Navy Defense Agencies Percent Percent Percent 2011 of 2011 2011 of 2011 2011 of 2011 2011 Percent of STEM Occupational Group Empl Empl Empl Empl Empl Empl Empl 2011 Empl Computer and mathematical scientist 11,409 38.4% 18,136 32.5% 15,287 28.9% 7,825 60.9% Engineer 13,216 44.4% 23,795 42.7% 30,763 58.1% 3,349 26.1% Life scientist 506 1.7% 4,824 8.7% 1,209 2.3% 405 3.2% Physical scientist 1,173 3.9% 2,783 5.0% 3,172 6.0% 253 2.0% Social scientist 3,433 11.5% 6,222 11.2% 2,494 4.7% 1,023 8.0% Total DOD civilian STEM employment 29,737 100.0% 55,760 100.0% 52,925 100.0% 12,855 100.0% NOTE: Figures are as of the fiscal year-end (September 30, 2011). SOURCE: Data provided by the Defense Manpower Data Center. Tabulations by the National Research Council. TABLE 3-15 Crosswalk Between Highest Degree Attained and OPM's Classification of Educational Attainment Highest Degree Attained OPM's Classification of Educational Attainment Degree unknown Invalid Less than bachelor's degree No formal education or did not complete elementary school Elementary school completedno high school Some high school High School or certificate of equivalency Terminal occupational programdid not complete Terminal occupational program Less than one year college One year college Two years college Associate Degree Three year college Four years college Bachelor's degree Bachelor's degree Post-Bachelor's Professional degree First professional Post-first professional degree Master's degree Master's degree Post-Master's Sixth-year degree Post-sixth year Doctoral degree Doctoral degree Post-Doctorate

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THE STEM WORKFORCE IN THE DEFENSE INDUSTRIAL BASE, WITHIN DOD, AND OVERALL 77 TABLE 3-16 Most Common Fields of Study (4-digit CIP code) for Department of Defense Civilian STEM Workforce with a Postsecondary Degree, 2011 Field of Study (4-digit CIP code and CIP title) 2011 Employment Percent of 2011 Employment 14.10 Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering 17,202 14.1 14.19 Mechanical Engineering 13,852 11.4 14.08 Civil Engineering 8,290 6.8 52.02 Business Administration, Management and Operations 7,206 5.9 11.01 Computer and Information Sciences, General 5,400 4.4 11.07 Computer Science 4,631 3.8 14.02 Aerospace, Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineering 3,543 2.9 14.01 Engineering, General 3,125 2.6 40.08 Physics 2,291 1.9 14.09 Computer Engineering, General 2,184 1.8 14.35 Industrial Engineering 2,171 1.8 15.03 Electrical Engineering Technologies/Technicians 2,110 1.7 27.01 Mathematics 1,947 1.6 14.07 Chemical Engineering 1,942 1.6 24.01 Liberal Arts and Sciences, General Studies, and Humanities 1,712 1.4 40.05 Chemistry 1,711 1.4 26.01 Biology, General 1,521 1.2 14.99 Engineering, Other 1,370 1.1 11.04 Information Science/Studies 1,301 1.1 40.06 Geological and Earth Sciences/Geosciences 1,208 1.0 14.27 Systems Engineering 1,164 1.0 NOTE: Figures are as of the fiscal year-end (September 30, 2011). The table includes those with a highest degree of associate's degree or higher. Instructional programs are based on an individual's highest educational attainment from an accredited institution. SOURCE: Data provided by the Defense Manpower Data Center. Tabulations by the National Research Council.

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78 ASSURING DOD A STRONG STEM WORKFORCE TABLE 3-17 Field of Study (2-digit CIP code) for Department of Defense Civilian STEM Workforce with a Postsecondary Degree, 2011 Field of study (2-digit CIP code and CIP title) 2011 Employment Percent of 2011 Employment Unknown Unknown 431 0.4 01 Agriculture, Agriculture Operations, & Related Sciences 330 0.3 03 Natural Resources And Conservation 1,792 1.5 04 Architecture And Related Services 391 0.3 05 Area, Ethnic, Cultural, And Gender Studies 191 0.2 09 Communication, Journalism, And Related Programs 380 0.3 10 Communications Technologies/Technicians And Support Services 116 0.1 11 Computer And Information Sciences And Support Services 13,444 11.0 12 Personal And Culinary Services 9 0.0 13 Education 1,494 1.2 14 Engineering 60,435 49.5 15 Engineering Technologies/Technicians 5,310 4.4 16 Foreign Languages, Literatures, And Linguistics 172 0.1 19 Family And Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences 112 0.1 22 Legal Professions And Studies 217 0.2 23 English Language And Literature/Letters. 167 0.1 24 Liberal Arts And Sciences, General Studies, And Humanities 1,712 1.4 25 Library Science 28 0.0 26 Biological And Biomedical Sciences 3,286 2.7 27 Mathematics And Statistics 2,601 2.1 29 Military Technologies 337 0.3 30 Multi/Interdisciplinary Studies 971 0.8 31 Parks, Recreation, Leisure And Fitness Studies 308 0.3 38 Philosophy And Religious Studies 298 0.2 39 Theology And Religious Vocations 111 0.1 40 Physical Sciences 6,242 5.1 41 Science Technologies/Technicians 193 0.2 42 Psychology 2,188 1.8 43 Security And Protective Services 567 0.5 44 Public Administration And Social Service Professions 1,198 1.0 45 Social Sciences 3,104 2.5 46 Construction Trades 42 0.0 47 Mechanic And Repair Technologies/Technicians 349 0.3 48 Precision Production 12 0.0 49 Transportation And Materials Moving 352 0.3 50 Visual And Performing Arts 304 0.2 51 Health Professions And Related Clinical Sciences 674 0.6 52 Business, Management, Marketing, & Related Support Services 11,754 9.6 54 History 389 0.3 60 Residency Programs 7 0.0 NOTE: Figures are as of the fiscal year-end (September 30, 2011). The 2-digit CIP represents the most general groupings of related pro- grams. The table includes those with a highest degree of associate's degree or higher. Instructional programs are based on an individual's highest educational attainment from an accredited institution. SOURCE: Data provided by the Defense Manpower Data Center. Tabulations by the National Research Council.

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THE STEM WORKFORCE IN THE DEFENSE INDUSTRIAL BASE, WITHIN DOD, AND OVERALL 79 TABLE 3-18 Field of Study (2-digit CIP code) by Major Occupational Group for Department of Defense Civilian STEM Workforce with a Postsecondary Degree, 2011 Computer and Mathematical Life Physical Social Field of Study (2-digit CIP code and CIP title) Scientist Engineer Scientist Scientist Scientist Unknown Unknown 0.3% 0.1% 1.4% 0.4% 1.7% 01 Agriculture, Agriculture Operations, & Related Sciences 0.1% 0.0% 3.4% 0.8% 0.2% 03 Natural Resources And Conservation 0.2% 0.2% 22.2% 4.3% 0.3% 04 Architecture And Related Services 0.1% 0.4% 0.6% 0.2% 0.2% 05 Area, Ethnic, Cultural, And Gender Studies 0.1% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 1.7% 09 Communication, Journalism, And Related Programs 0.8% 0.1% 0.2% 0.0% 1.0% 10 Communications Technologies/Technicians And Support 0.2% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 0.3% Services 11 Computer And Information Sciences And Support Services 38.8% 1.9% 0.5% 0.9% 2.4% 12 Personal And Culinary Services 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 13 Education 2.3% 0.2% 1.3% 0.7% 5.7% 14 Engineering 8.4% 81.7% 2.8% 10.1% 2.0% 15 Engineering Technologies/Technicians 3.4% 5.8% 1.0% 1.3% 0.8% 16 Foreign Languages, Literatures, And Linguistics 0.2% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 1.1% 19 Family And Consumer Sciences/Human Sciences 0.1% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.5% 22 Legal Professions And Studies 0.2% 0.1% 0.5% 0.1% 0.8% 23 English Language And Literature/Letters. 0.3% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 0.4% 24 Liberal Arts And Sciences, General Studies, And Humanities 3.4% 0.2% 1.8% 0.6% 4.1% 25 Library Science 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 26 Biological And Biomedical Sciences 0.8% 0.2% 39.8% 8.2% 0.8% 27 Mathematics And Statistics 6.9% 0.5% 0.1% 1.2% 0.5% 29 Military Technologies 0.3% 0.1% 0.0% 0.2% 1.7% 30 Multi/Interdisciplinary Studies 1.0% 0.4% 1.7% 1.2% 1.9% 31 Parks, Recreation, Leisure And Fitness Studies 0.1% 0.0% 4.8% 0.0% 0.1% 38 Philosophy And Religious Studies 0.2% 0.1% 0.6% 0.6% 1.2% 39 Theology And Religious Vocations 0.2% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 0.4% 40 Physical Sciences 1.4% 1.8% 3.4% 60.8% 0.9% 41 Science Technologies/Technicians 0.2% 0.1% 0.3% 0.6% 0.2% 42 Psychology 1.0% 0.0% 0.9% 0.2% 19.3% 43 Security And Protective Services 0.6% 0.1% 0.7% 0.2% 2.8% 44 Public Administration And Social Service Professions 0.8% 0.3% 1.3% 0.2% 6.6% 45 Social Sciences 2.5% 0.1% 3.0% 2.0% 20.8% 46 Construction Trades 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 47 Mechanic And Repair Technologies/Technicians 1.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 0.1% 48 Precision Production 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 49 Transportation And Materials Moving 0.5% 0.2% 0.6% 0.5% 0.3% 50 Visual And Performing Arts 0.7% 0.0% 0.3% 0.0% 0.6% 51 Health Professions And Related Clinical Sciences 0.4% 0.1% 2.1% 1.6% 2.8% 52 Business, Management, Marketing, & Related Support 21.9% 4.9% 3.9% 2.7% 13.3% Services 54 History 0.4% 0.0% 0.3% 0.1% 2.3% 60 Residency Programs 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% NOTE: Figures are as of the fiscal year-end (September 30, 2011). Fields of study that represent 3 percent or more of the degrees for a given occupational group are highlighted. The table includes those with a highest degree of associate's degree or higher. Instructional programs are based on an individual's highest educational attainment from an accredited institution. SOURCE: Data provided by the Defense Manpower Data Center. Tabulations by the National Research Council.

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80 ASSURING DOD A STRONG STEM WORKFORCE TABLE 3-19 Age Distribution of Department of Defense Civilian STEM Workforce, 2001-2011 Median Average Year 22-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 51-55 56-60 61-65 66+ Age Age 2001 2.3% 3.9% 7.8% 17.0% 19.0% 17.1% 18.0% 9.8% 3.8% 1.3% 45 45.6 2002 3.4% 4.4% 7.2% 15.1% 19.5% 17.4% 17.5% 10.3% 3.9% 1.4% 46 45.5 2003 4.1% 5.0% 6.9% 13.5% 19.8% 17.8% 16.3% 11.1% 4.1% 1.5% 46 45.4 2004 4.3% 5.8% 6.7% 11.9% 20.0% 18.2% 16.1% 11.2% 4.3% 1.5% 46 45.5 2005 3.9% 6.7% 6.6% 10.6% 19.6% 19.1% 16.0% 11.5% 4.4% 1.6% 46 45.6 2006 3.5% 7.6% 6.6% 9.5% 18.6% 19.9% 16.2% 11.7% 4.6% 1.7% 46 45.7 2007 3.4% 8.2% 6.8% 9.0% 17.0% 20.8% 16.7% 11.5% 4.9% 1.8% 47 45.9 2008 3.8% 8.7% 7.4% 8.6% 15.4% 20.8% 16.9% 11.0% 5.3% 1.9% 47 45.7 2009 4.7% 9.3% 8.4% 8.5% 13.6% 20.2% 16.8% 10.9% 5.5% 2.1% 47 45.4 2010 4.9% 9.6% 9.4% 8.7% 12.2% 19.5% 17.1% 10.7% 5.6% 2.2% 47 45.2 2011 4.2% 9.6% 10.6% 8.9% 11.5% 18.7% 17.7% 10.9% 5.6% 2.2% 47 45.3 NOTE: Figures are as of the fiscal year-end (September 30, 2011). Age category percentages exclude employees under the age of 22 and those whose age is unknown. SOURCE: Data provided by the Defense Manpower Data Center. Tabulations by the National Research Council. TABLE 3-20 Age Distribution of Department of Defense Civilian STEM Workforce by Major Occupational Group, 2011 Median Average Year 22-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 51-55 56-60 61-65 66+ Age Age Computer and 2.2% 6.9% 9.6% 9.7% 13.1% 20.0% 19.3% 12.1% 5.5% 1.6% 48 46.3 mathematical scientist Engineer 6.6% 12.3% 11.1% 7.6% 10.0% 18.8% 17.1% 9.3% 4.8% 2.3% 46 44.0 Life scientist 2.3% 7.4% 11.3% 11.6% 12.8% 14.9% 16.1% 14.0% 7.7% 1.9% 47 46.2 Physical scientist 2.3% 7.3% 9.6% 9.4% 10.2% 15.9% 18.1% 13.9% 8.1% 5.1% 49 47.7 Social scientist 1.7% 8.4% 12.0% 11.0% 13.5% 16.2% 15.4% 11.9% 7.2% 2.6% 47 45.9 Total DOD civilian 4.2% 9.6% 10.6% 8.9% 11.5% 18.7% 17.7% 10.9% 5.6% 2.2% 47 45.3 STEM employment NOTE: Figures are as of the fiscal year-end (September 30, 2011). Age category percentages exclude employees under the age of 22 and those whose age is unknown. SOURCE: Data provided by the Defense Manpower Data Center. Tabulations by the National Research Council.

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THE STEM WORKFORCE IN THE DEFENSE INDUSTRIAL BASE, WITHIN DOD, AND OVERALL 81 TABLE 3-21 Department of Defense Occupation Codes Identified as STEM by DMDC DOD Classification Code DOD Classification Code Description 123200 Analysis 169000 Other Mechanical and Electrical Equipment, General 230100 Intelligence, General 240100 Construction and Utilities 240200 Electrical/Electronic 240400 Aviation Maintenance and Allied 240700 Ship Construction and Maintenance 241000 Safety 241100 Chemical 241300 Surveying and Mapping 241400 Engineering and Maintenance Officers, Other 250100 Physical Scientists 250200 Meteorologists 250400 Social Scientists 251000 Mathematicians and Statisticians 251100 Educators and Instructors 260800 Biomedical Sciences and Allied Health Officers 260802 Biomedical Laboratory Services 260803 Environmental Health Services 260805 Pharmacy 260807 Psychology and Social Work 260814 Biochemistry 260829 Psychology, Clinical 270100 Administrators, General 270300 Manpower and Personnel 270500 Data Processing 280200 Supply 280300 Transportation

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