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Structure the instructional environment and interactions to motivate writing practice and persistence in learning new forms of writing. A small number of experiments show practices that improve the quality of writing and that reasonably could affect motivation. These practices include setting clear goals for writing; encouraging students to help each other plan, draft, or revise; using self-assessment; and providing feedback on progress. Several studies with adolescent learners have demonstrated that praise, tangible rewards, or both can improve students’ writing skills.

Develop an integrated system of skills by using approaches that capitalize on the relationships between reading and writing. Reading and writing depend on similar knowledge and cognitive processes, so insights in one area can lead to insights in the other. Making this relationship explicit will aid learners’ skill development, contribute to their awareness about language, and enhance their retrieval of text forms and meanings. For example, spelling instruction deepens awareness of the correspondences between letters and speech sounds, enabling faster word reading.



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