for adults. However, it is important to keep in mind that these principles and practices are derived mainly from research with K-12 students and general research on how people learn. So far, little research has been conducted to determine how best to incorporate this knowledge into more effective literacy instruction for adults.

The approaches explained here need to be modified to account for adults’ unique needs and learning goals. Precisely what needs to be taught and how will vary depending on the individual’s existing literacy skills, learning goals, age, motivation, and cultural and linguistic background.

As the report explains in detail, far more research is needed to determine how best to adapt the guiding principles and practices to meet the needs of adult learners. Those who develop, administer, and fund adult literacy instruction, those who prepare instructors, and teachers themselves will have important roles to play in these research studies as they work to help all adults meet modern literacy demands.

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