publications have appeared in Science, China Quarterly, Asian Survey, and Minerva, among others.

TAI MING CHEUNG is an associate research scientist at the University of California Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation (IGCC) located at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), in La Jolla. He directs the Minerva program on Chinese security and technology, a multiyear academic research and training project funded by the U.S. Defense Department to explore China’s technological potential. His responsibilities include managing the institute’s Track II Program: the Northeast Asia Cooperation Dialogue, which brings together senior foreign ministry and defense officials as well as academics from the United States, China, Japan, South Korea, North Korea, and Russia for informed discussions on regional security issues.

Dr. Cheung is also an associate adjunct professor at UCSD’s Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies (IR/PS), where he teaches courses on Asian security, Chinese security and technology, and Chinese politics.

Dr. Cheung is a long-time analyst of Chinese and East Asian defense and national security affairs, especially defense economic, industrial, and science and technological issues. His latest book, Fortifying China: The Struggle to Build a Modern Defense Economy, was published by Cornell University Press in 2009. The book examines the economic, commercial, and technological foundations of China’s long-term defense modernization that examines the development of the defense industrial complex, the role and prospects for civilian-military integration, and the military dimensions of science and technology policies. He was based in Northeast Asia (Hong Kong, China, and Japan) from the mid-1980s to 2002 covering political, economic, and strategic developments in Greater China and East Asia as a journalist for the Far Eastern Economic Review from 1988–1993 and subsequently as a political and business risk consultant for a number of companies, including PricewaterhouseCoopers. Dr. Cheung received his Ph.D. in war studies from King’s College London in 2007.

JOHN CRAWFORD is an Intel fellow, Digital Enterprise Group, and sets the architectural direction for emerging power and reliability technologies for future Intel processor server platforms. When Crawford joined Intel as a new college graduate in 1977, he worked as a software engineer developing software tools for Intel’s 8086 processor including the code-generation phase of Intel’s Pascal compiler for the 8086. In 1982 he became the chief architect for the Intel386 microprocessor. He was responsible for defining the company’s 32-bit architectural extensions to the already successful 8086/186/286 16-bit product line. In this capacity, he set the architectural direction and later participated in the design of the processor by leading the microprogram development and test program generation. Mr. Crawford made similar contributions as chief architect of the Intel486 processor. He comanaged the design of the Pentium processor from inception through a successful product launch in 1993. Mr. Crawford headed the joint architecture research with Hewlett-Packard that developed the Itanium family architecture, Intel’s 64-bit Enterprise product line. He has been involved with the Itanium family of products since its inception in 1994. In 1995, he received the ACM/IEEE Eckert-Mauchly Award for contributions to computer and digital systems architecture, and in June 1997 he received the IEEE Ernst Weber Engineering Leadership Recognition. Mr Crawford was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 2002.

Mr. Crawford received a bachelor’s degree in computer science from Brown University in 1975, and a master’s degree in computer science from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1977. He holds 23 patents.

DIETER ERNST (senior East-West Center fellow at the full professional level) is an authority on global production networks and research and development (R&D) internationalization in high-tech industries and on industrial and innovation policies in China, the United States and emerging economies, with a focus on standards and intellectual property rights. Earlier positions include senior advisor to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Paris; research director of the Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy (BRIE) at the University of California, Berkeley; and professor of international business at the Copenhagen Business School.

Dr. Ernst has cochaired an advisory committee of the U.S. Social Science Research Council to develop a program on innovation, business institutions and governance in Asia. He has served as scientific advisor to governments, private companies, and international institutions, such as World Bank, the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, the UN Conference on Trade and Development and the UN Industrial Development Organization. In the United Sates, Dr. Ernst has served as advisor to the National Science Foundation, Social Science Research Council, U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission, Council on Foreign Relations, the National Bureau for



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