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D Findings and Recommendations from The Future of Computing Performance: Game Over or Next Level? T he following findings and recommendations are repeated from the National Research Council's report, The Future of Computing Performance: Game Over or Next Level?1 · systems not only by parallel-systems experts but also by typical programmers. Focus long-term efforts on rethinking of the canonical computing "stack"--applications, programming language, compiler, runtime, virtual machine, Findings: operating system, hypervisor, and architecture--in · The information technology sector itself and most light of parallelism and resource-management other sectors of society--for example, manufacturing, challenges. financial and other services, science, engineering, · Invest in research on and development of parallel education, defense and other government services, and architectures driven by applications, including entertainment--have grown dependent on continued enhancements of chip multiprocessor systems and growth in computing performance. conventional data-parallel architectures, cost-effective · After many decades of dramatic exponential growth, designs for application-specific architectures, and single processor performance is increasing at a much support for radically different approaches. lower rate, and this situation is not expected to · Invest in research and development to make computer improve in the foreseeable future. systems more power-efficient at all levels of the · The growth in the performance of computing system, including software, application-specific systems--even if they are multiple-processor parallel approaches, and alternative devices. Such efforts systems--will become limited by power consumption should address ways in which software and system within a decade. architectures can improve power efficiency, such as by · There is no known alternative to parallel systems for exploiting locality and the use of domain-specific sustaining growth in computing performance; execution units. R&D should also be aimed at making however, no compelling programming paradigms for logic gates more power-efficient. Such efforts should general parallel systems have yet emerged. address alternative physical devices beyond incremental improvements in today's CMOS circuits. Recommendations: · To promote cooperation and innovation by sharing, · Invest in research in and development of algorithms encourage development of open interface standards for that can exploit parallel processing. parallel programming rather than proliferating · Invest in research in and development of programming proprietary programming environments. methods that will enable efficient use of parallel · Invest in the development of tools and methods to transform legacy applications to parallel systems. · Incorporate in computer science education an 1 increased emphasis on parallelism, and use a variety of NRC, 2011, The Future of Computing Performance: Game methods and approaches to better prepare students for Over or Next Level?, Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press (available online at http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_ the types of computing resources that they will id=12980). encounter in their careers. 67
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